Audio derivations of English words from Proto-Indo-European, and from Proto-Indo-European into selected "Eastern" languages

An Ancient Sounds Project

A record of social media posts, edited, corrected, and gathered together into one blog, in alphabetical order. The text is a little repetitive in places because every post needed to be intelligible by itself, and I sometimes wrote about a word on more than one occasion.

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A

A, an and one

English an comes from Anglo-Saxon an (meaning one) which derives from Proto-Indo-European *hoinos, something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/an-from-PIE-h1oinos.wav

Albanian një is also descended from *hoinos, like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1oinos-to-Albanian-nje.wav

English a also derives from Anglo-Saxon an and PIE *hoinos, by a different history via Middle English a, pronounced [ɑ:]:

🔈eastern-origins/stressed-a-from-PIE-h1oinos.wav

And one also comes from the same ancestor pronunciation:

🔈eastern-origins/one-from-PIE-h1oinos.wav

So a, an and one are all related in sound.

Oct 12, 2021

In this video of a gradually changing spectrogram, Proto-Indo-European *oin- develops into Anglo-Saxon an (pronounced "aan"). The left-to-right upward-sweeping resonance (the second formant of [oi]) collapses, as [a:] has more energy in lower frequencies than [i] does:
https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/oin-to-an.mp4

Apr 30, 2019

Acre

English acre derives from Old English æcer, via the Great Vowel Shift, and in many UK dialects, "loses" the final [r]. Here's my audio simulation:
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/RP-acre-from-AS-aecer.wav (or, if your device prefers MP3's,

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/RP-acre-from-AS-aecer.mp3)

Jul 16, 2020

More on acre: Old English æcer comes from Proto-Germanic *akraz (here sounding more like [akroz] or [akros]), from Post-Proto-Indo-European *aĝros (from Proto-Indo-European *heĝros). Audio simulations:

🔈(wav) https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/RP-acre-from-PostPIE-agros.wav

🔈(mp3) https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/RP-acre-from-PostPIE-agros.mp3

Jul 21, 2020

Sanskrit अज्र ajra came from Proto-Indo-European *h₂eǵros something like:

🔈eastern-origins/PostPIE-agros-to-Skt-ajra.wav and then developed into Hindi अज्र ajira

🔈eastern-origins/Sanskrit-ajra-to-Hindi-ajira.wav

Oct 6, 2021

Partial screenshot of a broad, green field, with a few trees in the background. From a Greek website offering interpretations of dreams. The heading, in greek, reads "agros", meaning field.  Source https://www.oneirokritis.net/ermineia-oneirwn/4-1/254-agros

Image: a broad, green field, with a few trees in the background. From a Greek website offering interpretations of dreams. The heading, in Greek, reads "agros", meaning field. Source: https://www.oneirokritis.net/ermineia-oneirwn/4-1/254-agros


After

English after comes from Anglo-Saxon æfter, which descends from Proto-Indo-European *hep-tero-

Listen: 🔈after-from-PIE-h2eptero.mp3

A related form, *hep-er-, without a [t], gave rise to Sanskrit अपर ápara: 🔈PIE-h2eptero-to-Sanskrit-apara.mp3

Oct 7, 2021

Aghast

(See "ghastly", below.)

All

English all comes from Proto-Indo-European *hel-nó-; this audio simulation just gets to *hel-n, [ħɐln]:
🔈eastern-origins/all-from-PIE-h2eln.wav

The same ancestral pronunciation also developed into Sanskrit अरण्य aranya "forest, wilderness":

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2eln-to-Sanskrit-aranya.wav

Mar 21, 2022


YouTube image for Me Aranya (In the Forest), reading of a poem by Sarojini Naidu. Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=C_yHjjbEXTQ

Am, is

English am descends, via Anglo-Saxon eom and Proto-Germanic *immi, from Proto-Indo-European *hés-mi, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/am-from-PIE-h1esmi.wav
The same ancestral pronunciation developed into Sanskrit अस्मि asmi, like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1esmi-to-Sanskrit-asmi.wav

Other forms of "to be" also descend from the same stem, Proto-Indo-European *h₁es-, with different suffixes. For example, is comes from *hes-ti.

Oct 11, 2021

Angle

English angle (to fish) comes from a suffixed form of the Proto-Indo-European stem *henk-, perhaps pronounced [ħaŋk-], meaning a curve or hook. Here's a simulation (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/angle-from-PIE-h2enk.wav

The same stem is the ancestor of Ossetian æнгуыр [æŋgwɨr]:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2enk-to-Ossetian-aengur.wav

Proto-Indo-European *henk- also developed into Sanskrit अङ्क áṅka, possibly something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2enk-to-Sanskrit-anka.wav

Oct 14, 2021

For the origins of the name of the historical people, the Angles, see "English", below.

Ankle

In contrast to angle, the English word ankle comes from Proto-Indo-European *heng-ul- [aŋgʊl], the stem *heng- meaning perhaps "joint". Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/ankle-from-PIE-h2eng.wav

In Persian it developed into انگشت angusht, "digit" i.e. finger or toe:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2eng-to-Persian-angusht.wav

Oct 15, 2021

Answer, swear, and word

English answer comes from Anglo-Saxon andswaru, a compound word with prefix and- + stem swaru, from Proto-Germanic *swaro, from Proto-Indo-European *suor-, meaning something like "to say aloud". Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/answer-from-PIE-swor.wav
The Proto-Indo-European *suor- also developed into Ukrainian сварити swariti “to berate”, and very similar words in other Slavonic languages:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-swor-to-Ukrainian-swariti.wav
Interestingly, Sanskrit स्वरति svárati also has the same origin.

The verb swear comes from Anglo-Saxon swerian, from the same Proto-Germanic and Proto-Indo-European ancestors. Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/swear-from-PIE-swor.wav

Another form of Proto-Indo-European *suor- is *suer-. The initial *s- is a prefix; the unprefixed form *uer- (*wer-) is the ancestor of English word, the first part of Latin verbum, Russian врать [vratʲ], Sanskrit व्रत vrata, etc. But those simulations are for another day.

Not everyone (e.g. @KroonenGuus, whose etymological dictionary I respect and generally try to follow) agrees that word and swear have a common etymology, so ...

Feb 4, 2022

Apple

English apple derives from Proto-Indo-European *hebol, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/apple-from-PIE-h2abol.wav
In some Slavic languages (e.g. Macedonian) *hebol developed into jabolko (the -ko is a suffix):
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2abol-to-Macedonian-jabolko.wav

In quite a few Slavic languages, the /l/ became vowel-like and merged with the preceding vowel, as in e.g. Bosnian jabuka:

🔈eastern-origins/jabolko-to-Bosnian-jabuka.wav

Phoneticians call this "l-vocalization", but I've heard it described informally as "swallowing your l's".

Oct 19, 2021


Advertising image for Crvena Jabuka Market, a Bosnian supermarket chain, from https://crvena-jabuka.ba/akcije/

Arm

English arm comes from Proto-Indo-European *herHmos, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/arm-from-PIE-h2ermos.wav
(An American English pronunciation of arm used for this one, for a bit of diversity. Think of it as a proxy for the 17th century English pronunciation.)
The same ancestral root developed into Sanskrit ईर्म irma, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2ermos-to-Sanskrit-irma.wav

Oct 20, 2021

Ash

Khaki is a loan from Urdu خاکی‎ xākī, a loan from Persian, from خاک xâk "earth", from
Proto-Indo-European *hehs [ħaχs], something like this (listen):
 
🔈eastern-origins/khaki-from-PIE-h2eh2s.wav

English ash (grey-coloured burnt substance) also descends from *hehs:

🔈eastern-origins/ash-from-PIE-h2eh2s.wav

*h₂ usually develops into [a], but in Iranian it's sometimes [x].

Light brown, clay soil. The caption at the top, in Persian script, reads khak e ros, meaning "clay soil". From an Iranian business website, https://venonwood.biz
Light brown, clay soil. The caption at the top, in Persian script, reads khake ros, meaning "clay soil". From an Iranian business website, https://venonwood.biz

Jun 26, 2023

Ash tree

English ash (i.e. ash-tree) comes from Proto-Indo-European *hesk-. *he was pronounced [o] (earlier perhaps [hʷo], with a lip-rounded [h]), so I use [osk] for *hesk-. Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/ash-from-PIE-h3esk.wav
In Armenian, this root developed into the first part of հաճարի hachari, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3esk-to-Armenian-hach.wav

Oct 21, 2021

Armenian հաճարի hachari, from https://www.encyclopedia.am/pages.php?hId=413

Ask

English ask comes from Proto-Indo-European *hisḱo-, I think pronounced [ɑisko] (perhaps earlier [ħɑisko]). Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/ask-from-PIE-h2isko.wav

The same stem developed into Hindi इच्छा ichaa, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-aisko-to-Hindi-icchaa.wav

Oct 25, 2021

B

Bade and bid

The etymology of bade is tricky. Kroonen traces bid to Proto-Indo-European *bʰedʰ-ie-, but bade is the past tense so the vowel would be [o], i.e. *bʰodʰ-. The recording used here is [bodh], listen:

🔈eastern-origins/bade-from-PIE-bhodh.wav

Other philologists, e.g. Ringe, trace bid to Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰedʰ-, "to ask for". From *gʷʰedʰ- we can generate Lithuanian gedi and Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian žedan "crave", like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwhedh-to-Bosnian-zhedan.wav
I can't say if *bʰedʰ- or *gʷʰedʰ- is the better analysis!

Some people pronounce bade like "bad", and others like "bayed" (a more recent development, arising from the Great Vowel Shift). The two ways they go back to Proto-Indo-European are:

1) "bad" 🔈eastern-origins/bad-from-PIE-bhodh.wav

2) "bayed" 🔈eastern-origins/bade-from-PIE-bhodh.wav

Oct 27, 2021

Bairn

The (Northern) English and Scots word bairn comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰor-no- (a form of bʰer-, the "o-grade"). Ignoring the -no suffix, perhaps something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/bairn-from-PIE-bhor.wav
The same Proto-Indo-European root developed into Sanskrit भरण bharana, perhaps something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhor-to-Sanskrit-bharaNa.wav

(See also "bear", below)

Nov 1, 2021

Barrow

English barrow, i.e. burial mound, comes via Proto-Germanic *berga from Proto-Indo-European ancestor *bʰerǵʰ-os.

🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/barrow-from-PIE-bherghos.wav

The root *bʰerǵʰ- also developed into Persian برج borj “tower”
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-bhergh-to-Persian-borj.wav

Kurdish برج berdz (Kurmani birc), Balochi برز ئه borza “height”, English "borough", and Arabic برج burj “tower” are also from *bʰerǵʰ-

🔈eastern-origins/PGmc-berga-to-Balochi-borza.wav

Sarmatian Kurgan (burial mound).
The "walls" (protective earth banks) at Wareham, Dorset, a Saxon "burh" or borough.
The Burj Khalifa tower, a huge steel skyscraper.
Above: Sarmatian Kurgan (burial mound). Cropped from public domain image from Wikimedia Commons
Below: The "walls" (protective earth banks) at Wareham, Dorset, a Saxon "burh" or borough.
The Burj Khalifa tower, a huge steel skyscraper. By Donaldytong, from Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 3.0

Nov 2, 2021; Jan 17, 2024

Be

English be comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰuh₂, perhaps pronounced [bʱuɑ̆]. Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/be-from-PIE-bhuh2.wav The same root developed into [bu] in Persian بودن budan:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhuh2-to-Persian-buudan.wav

Nov 3, 2021

See also separate entries for am, is.

Bear

The English verb bear comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰer-. Apart from the change from [bʱ] to [b], bear has changed rather little in several thousand years. Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/bear-from-PIE-bher.wav

Initial [bʱ] is found in Sanskrit and some of its daughter languages, e.g. Sanskrit भरति bharati, or Hindi भर bhar, so that gives us data about the sound of [bʱ]. Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bher-to-Skt-bhar.wav

In Persian بار [bar], the initial aspiration has gone: 🔈eastern-origins/Persian-bar-F.wav

Oct 28, 2021

Grimm's Law: The initial [b] in English "(to) bear" comes from a voiced aspirate [bʱ] in Proto-Indo-European *bʰer(e/o)-, like this:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-bher-to-Eng-bear.wav

MP3 version: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-bher-to-Eng-bear.mp3

Sanskrit bhar- retains the initial [bʱ]:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-bher-to-Skt-bhar.wav (based on recording of Suhas Mahesh saying bharati)

MP3 version: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-bher-to-Skt-bhar.mp3

Dec 6, 2017

English bear (the verb, i.e. to bear) comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰer-, so it hasn't changed all that much in over 4000 years. Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bher.wav

(This simulation lacks a final [r], because reasons.) It didn't change a lot in its development into Sanskrit भर bhar either:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bher-to-Skt-bhar.wav

In Persian, as in English and other Germanic languages, [bʱ] developed into [b], so in Persian it's بار bar.

Nov 4, 2021

Beat

English beat comes (via Anglo-Saxon bēatan and Proto-Germanic *bautan) from Proto-Indo-European *bʰóud-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/beat-from-PIE-bhoud.wav
(Not the best materials; I had to stretch out the beat and *bʰóud- has initial [b], not [bʱ], but hey ...)
Proto-Indo-European *bʰóud- also developed into Armenian բութ [but], perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhoud-to-Armenian-but.wav

Simulating voiced aspirates can be quite challenging, as I rely on recordings from Spoken Sanskrit or e.g. Hindi to cook with.

Nov 5, 2021

Bellows, belly

English bellows and belly come via Anglo-Saxon beliġ and Proto-Germanic *balgi- from Proto-Indo-European *bʰólǵʰ- "bag", perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/bellows-from-PIE-bholgh.wav (This simulation has initial [b], not [bʱ], as it's computed from Irish bolg, "bag".)

The same PIE root developed into Persian بالش bālish "pillow", like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bholgh-to-Persian-balesh.wav Also Pashto بالښت balacht, Ossetian baʒ/baz, Slovenian blazina, Albanian bark.

Magnus Pharao (@MagnusPharao) commented
Haha  so cool - so belly and bolig are cognate to Danish bælg (seed pod of legumes and bellows) it would appear.

Bid

English bid has two etymologies, depending on  sense: 1. ask, i.e. bid somebody do something (see the post on "bade", above) vs. 2. to announce, e.g. an auction bid.  Bid2 comes from Anglo Saxon beodan and Proto-Indo-European *bʰeudʰ-, sort of like this:

🔈eastern-origins/bid-from-PIE-bheudh.wav
Proto-Indo-European *bʰeudʰ- also developed into the well-known Sanskrit word बुद्ध buddha “awakened”:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bheudh-to-Sanskrit-buddha.wav

Nov 12, 2021

Bid2 also lies behind "bode" (as in "that bodes well") and "foreboding" (said of something that doesn't bode well).

Bind

English bind comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéndʰ-, perhaps like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/bind-from-PIE-bhendh.wav (I'm pleased that the [bʱ] and [dʱ] came out well!)

*bʰéndʰ- also developed into Persian بند band, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhendh-to-Persian-band.wav

Nov 18, 2021

Bite

English bite comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéid-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/bite-from-PIE-bheid.wav In Sanskrit, the same root developed into भिद् bhid-, perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bheid-to-Sanskrit-bhid.wav and in Ancient Greek φείδομαι pheid(omai):

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bheid-to-AncientGreek-pheidomai.wav

Nov 23, 2021

Black and bleach

English black comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰléiǵ-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/black-from-PIE-bhleig.wav
*bʰléiǵ- is also the ancestor of Sanskrit भ्रज bhraj(ati):
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhleig-to-Sanskrit-bhraajati.wav
Curiously, *bʰléiǵ- is also the ancestor of English bleach:
🔈eastern-origins/bleach-from-PIE-bhleig.wav
Consequently, *bʰléiǵ- is thought to mean something like "shiny" rather than black, perhaps because lots of dark black things in nature are also shiny, e.g. dark lakes, crows' feathers etc.
Nov 29, 2021

Magnus Pharao (@MagnusPharao) commented: In Danish we have the roots in bleg "pale" and blæk "ink".

Bleat

English bleat comes from the apparently onomatopoeic (onomatopoetic?) Proto-Indo-European ancestor *bʰleh₁-. Because I couldn't find cognates or similar words in modern S. Asian languages, this simulation lacks the aspiration of *, but anyway:

🔈eastern-origins/bleat-from-PIE-bhleh1.wav
The same Proto-Indo-European root *bʰleh₁- developed into -blja- in the second syllable of Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian brbljati, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhleh1-to-Bosnian-brblijati.wav

Blossom, bloom, and blow

The "blo-" part of English blossom comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰléh-e-, which I think could have been pronounced like [bʱléŏə]. Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/blossom-from-PIE-bhleh3e.wav
The same root lies behind bloom and blow (as in Shakespeare's "I know a bank where the wild thyme blows")
The Proto-Indo-European root *bʰléh-e also developed into Bengali  ফুল phul, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhleh3-to-Bengali-phul.wav

Dec 7, 2021

Bore

English bore (as in "to bore a hole in something"), comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰr(H)-eh₂-. The suffix *-eh₂ comes out historically as /a/, so I think this mouthful of an abstraction could be pronounced something like [bʰrhɐ]. Listen: 🔈eastern-origins/bore-from-PIE-bhrHeh2.wav
This root also developed into the Sanskrit verb भारती bharati, perhaps something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhrHeh2-to-Sanskrit-bharati.wav

Dec 9, 2021

Johan Schalin (@J_Schalin) commented: The -r- was syllabic of course.

(i.e. [bʰr̩hɐ])

Bottom

English bottom comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰ-mén; in this simulation I just take it back to the first syllable, *bʰudʰ, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/bottom-from-PIE-bhudh.wav In Persian, the same root comes out as بن bun:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhudh-to-Persian-bun.wav

Dec 10, 2021

Bough

English bough comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰaǵʰu- (earlier perhaps *bʰehǵʰu-), something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/bough-from-PIE-bheh2gh.wav The same stem developed into Persian بازو bazu, maybe like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bheh2gh-to-Persian-bazu.wav

A bough is an "arm" of a tree, and the Persian word بازو bazu means "arm".

In June 2021, @yakabikaj posted this interesting tweet about how it has spread from Persian to quite a few other languages, with the meaning "shirt":

< https://twitter.com/yakabikaj/status/1409148955804549124?s=20
#Etymology of the day: Persian بازو bāzū "upper arm" ➡ Malay baju "shirt" (something that covers your arms) ➡ Dutch baadje ➡ Afrikaans baadjie "jacket". From Afrikaans it entered three Bantu languages of southern Africa: Shona (bháchi), Xhosa (íbhátyi), and Zulu (îbhántshi) !

Dec 13, 2021

Bright

English bright comes (via a long chain of small changes) from Proto-Indo-European *bʰerhǵ-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/bright-from-PIE-bherh1g.wav
the same ancestral pronunciation also developed into (the [baroz-] part of) Persian برازیدن  barozidan, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bherh1g-to-Persian-barozidan.wav

Jan 4, 2022

Bristle

English bristle comes from Proto-Indo-European *bʰr̥stí-s, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/bristle-from-PIE-bhrsti.wav I omit the final -s here because in Sanskrit the same ancestral pronunciation developed into भृष्टि [bhr̩ʂʈí] "a point":

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-bhrsti-to-Sanskrit-bhrshti.wav

Jan 5, 2022

Brother

Here's a classic of Proto-Indo-European reconstruction. The English word brother descends from Proto-Indo-European *bʰréhtēr, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/brother-from-PIE-bhrater.wav

*bʰréh₂tēr also developed into Sanskrit भ्राता bhraata:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-bhrater-to-Hindi-bhraata.wav

Persian برادر barodar:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-bhrater-to-Persian-barodar.wav
and related forms in most other Indo-European languages.

Sep 27, 2023

Brow

English brow comes from a Proto-Indo-European word that philologists give as *hbʰruH-s; this rather intimidating formula is thought to have been pronounced as something like [ŏ̥bʱruəs]; listen:
🔈eastern-origins/brow-from-PIE-h3bhruHs.wav
The initial sound of *hbʰruH-s is thought by many to have been some kind of voiceless fricative consonant, which later became a rounded vowel (which I might transcribe as [ŏ̥]). Evidence for a vowel before the [bʱ] is seen in e.g. the Urdu descendent ابرو abru:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3bhruHs-to-Urdu-abru.wav
The idea that *h₃ developed into a rounded vowel comes partly from Ancient Greek, in which that word became ὀφρῦς ophrus, maybe like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3bhruHs-to-AncientGreek-ophrys.wav

I'm not strongly convinced that the initial *hwas a contoid. It seems equally plausible to me that it was a kind of vocoid (see https://dx.doi.org/10.1075/dia.17.2.04rey), but this is not the majority opinion, and I'm trying not to deviate too far from the mainstream view here.

C

Call

English call comes from Proto-Indo-European *gols-, perhaps like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/call-from-PIE-gols.wav
The same PIE root developed into Bosnian glas:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gols-to-Bosnian-glas.wav

(Phonologists: note acoustic, gradual metathesis, without segments.)

Jan 10, 2022

Can and know

English can (= be able to) comes from the [gn] part of the Proto-Indo-European word *ǵnéh₃-, pronounced something like [g̟neŏ]. Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/can-from-PIE-gneh3.wav


*ǵn is also the origin of the [gn] in "cognitive", "cognition", and of [kn] in older pronunciations of "know".

The same root *ǵnéh₃- developed into Urdu جاننا jaanna:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gneh3-to-Urdu-jaannaa.wav

and Lithuanian žinau:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gneh3-to-Lithuanian-Zinau.wav

and as [zn...] in many words for "know", "knowledge" etc in Slavonic languages (Russian, Polish, etc), e.g. Bosnian znam "I know".
Jan 14, 2022

How could Proto-Indo-European *ĝ develop into e.g. [dʒ],  [ʒ], and [z], as in *ĝneh₃-  "know" > Sanskrit जानाति jānāti, Lithuanian žinau, Russian знаю [znaju]? Assuming *h₃ was something like [ŏ], here's a simulation of [ɟnɛŏ] >  [džnaʊ] > Lithuanian žinau:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-gneh3-to-Lithuanian-Zinau.mp3

Apr 28, 2020

Carve

English carve comes from Proto-Indo-European *gerbʰ-, perhaps like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/carve-from-PIE-gerbh.wav

In Albanian, the same root developed into (the gërv- part of) gërvisht, meaning "to scratch or scrape". Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gerbh-to-Albanian-gervisht.wav

Jan 24, 2022

Chin

English chin comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵenu, perhaps something like this (listen): 🔈eastern-origins/chin-from-PIE-genu.wav

The same root developed into two Persian words, چانه čâne and زنخ zanax, the latter perhaps like this: 🔈eastern-origins/PIE-genu-to-Persian-zanakh.wav
([z] is what's expected from *ǵ)

 Jan 31, 2022

Choose

English choose comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵéus-, perhaps something like this (listen): 🔈 ttp://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/choose-from-PIE-geus.wav

The same root developed into Persian دوست duust: 🔈eastern-origins/PIE-geus-to-Persian-duust.wav
from which comes the Urdu pronunciation [dost]: 🔈eastern-origins/Persian-duust-to-Urdu-dost.wav

Feb 1, 2022

Cold

English cold comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵól-to-, something like this (ignoring the final /o/, listen): 🔈eastern-origins/cold-from-PIE-golt.wav

*ǵól-to- is a form of *ḱel-to-, which developed into Urdu سرد serd (via Persian), perhaps like this: 🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kelt-to-Urdu-serd.wav

Feb 2, 2022

[27/4/23 This has since been re-done as PIE-kelt-to-Persian-sard.wav, with borrowing into Urdu modelled as Persian-sard-to-Urdu-serd.wav]

Come

English come is descended from Proto-Indo-European *gʷem-, something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/come-from-PIE-gwem.wav

The same ancestral word developed into Sanskrit gam-, the root of गमति gamati, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwem-to-Sanskrit-gamati.wav

Feb 14, 2022

Corn

English corn comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵrh- [grɐno], perhaps something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/corn-from-PIE-grh2no.wav

The same ancestral word became जीर्ण jiirna in Sanskrit, perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-grh2no-to-Sanskrit-jirna.wav

and also became zrn in Czech:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-grh2no-to-Czech-zrn.wav

(and зерна [zerna] in Ukrainian)

Mar 7, 2022

(Revisited with further examples on Nov 28, 2023)

Corn comes from *ǵr̥h- [grɐno] "grain"
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/corn-from-PIE-grh2no.wav

"Satemization" is the process by which PIE *ǵ, * i.e. [g̟ʲ], [k̟ʲ] became affricates [ʤ], [ʧ], then fricatives [ʃ], [ʒ], sometimes [s], [z].

*ǵr̥h- developed into Sanskrit जीर्ण jiirna, with [ʤ]
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Sanskrit-jirna.wav

Lithuanian žirnis “pea”, [ʒ]
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Lithuanian-Zirnis.wav

Latvian zirni, [z]
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Latvian-zirni.wav

The whole sequence:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-grh2no-to-Latvian-zirni.wav

NOTE: This is not to imply that Lithuanian developed out of Sanskrit, nor that Latvian developed out of Lithuanian - they didn't. But you can arrange these words in a sequence reflecting the process of "softening" of *ǵ to [ʤ] to [ʒ] to [z].

Cow

English cow comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʷeh-u-s [gwous], perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/cow-from-PIE-gwous.wav
which also developed into Dari گاو [gau] and Persian گاو [gov] :
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwous-to-Persian-gov.wav
and Ancient Greek  βοῦς [bous]:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwous-to-Ancient-Greek-bous.wav

Mar 8, 2022

Crane

English crane comes from Proto-Indo-European *g(e)r-on- < *gerh-en-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/crane-from-PIE-gron.wav
According to some (it's feasible), the same ancestral word developed into Persian کلنگ kolang, perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gron-to-Persian-kolang.wav

Mar 9, 2022

Cud

English cud (i.e. regurgitated food that is chewed by cows) comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʷét, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/cud-from-PIE-gwet.wav
The same ancestral word developed into Sanskrit  जतु jatu "gum", perhaps like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwet-to-Sanskrit-jatu.wav

Mar 10, 2022

D

Dale

Dolina is a widespread Slavic placename, e.g. the village of Dolyna, NE of Melitopol, Zaporizhia, Ukraine. The Dol- part comes from Proto-Indo-European *dhol-, like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Dolyna-from-PIE-dhol.wav

The same root developed into English dale:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dhol-to-dale.wav

Dolyna/Долина, in the valley ("dale") of the Molochna River, Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. Image from Google Maps.

Dolyna/Долина, in the valley ("dale") of the Molochna River, Zaporizhia Oblast, Ukraine. Image from Google Maps.

Oct 5, 2022

Dare

English dare comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰors- perhaps something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/dare-from-PIE-dhors.wav

The same ancestral word developed into Persian داشتن dashtan
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhors-to-Persian-daashtan.wav
and Sanskrit धर्षति dharshati
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhors-to-Sanskrit-dharSati.wav

Mar 11, 2022

Daughter

English daughter comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰughtḗr [dʱugɐté:r, dʱugħté:r], perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/daughter-from-PIE-dhugh2ter.wav
The same ancestral word developed into Persian دختر dukhter
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhugh2ter-to-Persian-dukhter.wav
and lots of other languages ...

Mar 14, 2022

Day

English day comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰegʷʰ, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/day-from-PIE-dhegwh.wav
The same ancestral word developed into Urdu داغ dagh, perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhegwh-to-Urdu-dagh.wav

Mar 15, 2022

Deed

English deed comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰéh-ti- [dʱe:ti], perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/deed-from-PIE-dheh1ti.wav The same ancestral root developed into Sanskrit धातु dhaatu, perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dheh1ti-to-Sanskrit-dhatu.wav

Mar 16, 2022

Deep

English deep comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeub-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/deep-from-PIE-dheub.wav
The same ancestral word developed into Albanian det, meaning "sea", perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dheub-to-Albanian-det.wav

Mar 18, 2022

Deer

English deer (which earlier meant any animal, i.e. a thing that breathes) comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰeus-, meaning "breath", perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/deer-from-PIE-dheus.wav The same ancestral word developed into Urdu دھنسنا dhasna, meaning "to fall", perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dheus-to-Urdu-dhasna.wav
(The semantic connection is via "breathing out", then "fall to dust" in Sanskrit.)

Apr 25, 2022

Dew

English dew comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰouh₂-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/dew-from-PIE-dhouh2.wav
The same ancestral word developed into Sanskrit धव् dhav "run, flow", perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhouh2-to-Sanskrit-dhav.wav

Apr 28, 2022

Do

English do comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰoh₁-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/do-from-PIE-dhoh1.wav
The same ancestral word developed into Sanskrit धा dhaa "something put down", perhaps like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhoh1-to-Sanskrit-dhaa.wav

May 6, 2022

Door

English door comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰur-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/door-from-PIE-dhur.wav
Another form of the same ancestral word, *dʰwor-, developed into Ossetian дуар [dwar]:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhwor-to-IronOssetian-dwar.wav
and Persian در [dar]:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhwor-to-Persian-dar.wav

 May 16, 2022

Dream

English dream comes from Proto-Indo-European *dʰrougʰ-mo-, perhaps something like this (disregarding the final vowel); listen:
🔈eastern-origins/dream-from-PIE-dhroughm.wav
The same root *dʰrougʰ- developed into Persian دروغ doroog "untruth, lie, falsehood":

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dhroughm-to-Persian-doroog.wav Lithuanian speakers may note that recordings of draugų, genitive plural of draugas, which also derive from *dʰrougʰ-, are used in the Proto-Indo-European simulation.

May 24, 2022

E

Ear

English ear comes from Proto-Indo-European *heus, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/ear-from-PIE-h2ews.wav

The dual form, *h₂ṓus-ih₁, developed into Persian هوش‎ hoosh: 🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2ousih1-to-Persian-hush.wav

Proto-Indo-European *heus "ear" also developed into the quite similar Lithuanian word ausis, perhaps something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2euses-to-Lithuanian-ausis.wav

May 25, 2022 [Corrected on 19/7/2023 to remove incorrect reference to Persian گوش guush, which is from a different root.]

Earth

English earth comes from Proto-Indo-European *hér-t-, perhaps something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/earth-from-PIE-h1ert.wav

The same root developed into Zazaki her:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1ert-to-Zazaki-her.wav

Zazaki is an Iranian language spoken in Turkey.

Jun 6, 2022

Andreas Schätti (@AndreasSchatti) commented:
In Swiss German, "herd" can mean "earth" such as in "Herdöpfel" (earth apples") for potatoes

Martin J. Kümmel (@MJKue) commented:

Is the Zazaki word not borrowed from Arabic ʾarḍ, like Kurdish erd, eʾrd? It has variants with -d and without ḥ- This is Tsabolov's etymology for the Kurdish word, but I could not check other sources

Chyet (2003) Kurdish-English Dictionary suggests an Old Iranian etymology, xard, with Kurdish 'erd as a loan from Arabic. But I'm unsure if Old Iranian xard is from PIE *h₁er-, so my simulation is still somewhat doubtful.

Jun 7, 2022

East

English east comes from Proto-Indo-European *heus-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/east-from-PIE-h2eus.wav
The same root developed into Sanskrit उषस् ushas, meaning "dawn":

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2us-to-Sanskrit-ushas.wav

Eat

English eat comes from Proto-Indo-European *héd-, perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/eat-from-PIE-h1ed.wav
Here, *héd- is pronounced like "Ed"; earlier it was perhaps like "head". The same root developed into Sanskrit अत्ति atti, "eat":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1ed-to-Sanskrit-atti.wav

Jun 8, 2022

Edge

English edge comes from Proto-Indo-European *heḱ- [ħakʲ], perhaps something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/edge-from-PIE-h2ak.wav (Since *h₂ lowers [e] to [a], I think that it could have been [ħ], if it was a fricative at all. Still debatable.) The same root *heḱ- [ħakʲ] developed into Persian آس aas, "mill, grinding", perhaps like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2ak-to-Persian-aas.wav

Jun 10, 2022

Egg

English egg is a loan-word from Old Norse. It comes from Proto-Indo-European *hōu-ió- [ɐuio], perhaps something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/egg-from-PIE-h2ouio.wav

The same root developed into Persian خایه haye:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2ouio-to-Persian-haye.wav

Jun 13, 2022

A Proto-Indo-European laryngeal surviving in Persian? The modern Persian word for egg, خایه  haye [xaje], descends from Proto-Indo-European *hōu-ió-. Other Indo-Iranian languages (Pashto, Balochi, Kurdish ...) also retain an initial [x] or [h] to this day.

Jan 21, 2022

Eight

Eight came from Proto-Indo-European hoḱtṓu, via changes something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/eight-from-okto.wav

The same root developed into Tajik ҳашт hasht (= Persian هشت)

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-oktou-to-Tajik-hasht.wav Tajik is an Iranian language.

Jun 14, 2022

Eke

English eke (as in "eke out") came from Proto-Indo-European *héug-, perhaps pronounced [ħɑʊɡ], later [ɑʊɡ] (cf. Latin augment). Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/eke-from-PIE-h2eug.wav

*héug- also developed into Latvian augt “grow”:

🔈eastern-origins/Latvian-augt.wav

Lithuanian aukštas “high, tall”:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2eug-to-Lithuanian-aukStas.wav

Latin Augustus “increased, elevated, honored”:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2eug-to-Latin-Augustus.wav

*héug- is related to the root *huég-, "to wax, increase" (see below). For example, *huég- developed into Persian وخش vakhsh "to wax, increase":

🔈eastern-origins/Persian-vaxS-M.wav


Coin of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, "Diocletianus Augustus". From Wikimedia Commons
Coin of the Roman Emperor Diocletian, "Diocletianus Augustus". From Wikimedia Commons

Jun 15, 2022; corrected and augmented with additional examples July 20, 2023

Elbow

English elbow is, historically, a compound of "ell" (forearm) + "bow". The "ell" part comes from Proto-Indo-European *Hehl-én-eh₂- [ho̥léna]. Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/elbow-from-PIE-Heh3leneh2.wav

The same word developed into Persian ارنج arenj:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-Heh3leneh2-to-Persian-arendZ.wav

Jun 16, 2022

Else

English else comes from Proto-Indo-European *hél-io-s, [alios] (perhaps earlier [ħalios]). Listen:

🔈eastern-origins/else-from-PIE-h2elios.wav.

The same root *hél- developed into Armenian այլ ayl "other, also, but":

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2elios-to-Armenian-ayl.wav

Jun 17, 2022

Empty

English empty - the "mpt" part, in particular - comes from Proto-Indo-European *méd-e-, "measure", perhaps something like this (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/empty-from-PIE-mede.wav

The intrusive [p] arises from a slip in timing of nasality, lip opening and voicing of [m].

The same root *méd-e- developed into Armenian միտք mitk’, “thought”, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mede-to-Armenian-mitk.wav

Jun 21, 2022, updated Apr 13, 2023 (see mete)

English

Ukrainian and other Slavic languages are often seen as different from "Western" European languages. But Ukrainian, English, and most other European languages are related to each other by descent from a common ancestor language, Proto-Indo-European. For example, the Ukrainian word for "narrow", вузький [wʊzʲkɪi̯], comes from Proto-Indo-European *henǵʰ-u-, pronounced something like [ħaŋg̟ʱu]. Listen: 🔈eastern-origins/English-from-PIE-h2emghu.wav. The same Proto-Indo-European root also lies behind Angle, the name of the ancestral speakers of English: 🔈eastern-origins/Angel-from-PIE-h2emghu.wav. In short, the word English and Ukrainian вузький [wuzkii] "narrow", are related, like this: 🔈eastern-origins/English-to-Ukrainian-wuzkii.wav

Feb 24, 2022

The "engl-" part of English comes from Proto-Indo-European *hemǵʰ-u-, meaning "narrow" and perhaps pronounced something like [ħaŋgʱu] (listen):

🔈eastern-origins/English-from-PIE-h2emghu.wav

The same root developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian uzak:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2emghu-to-BCS-uzak.wav

Jun 23, 2022

*henǵʰ-u- also descends to English in the first syllable of hangnail (Old English angnæġl "tight/painful nail"), the initial [h] being added by folk-etymological reanalysis as hang-nail.

Enough

English enough (i.e. a limit that is reached) comes from Proto-Indo-European *hnoḱ-, pronounced something like [anok], earlier [ħanok]  (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/enough-from-PIE-h2nok.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit नशति nashati "to reach, attain":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2nok-to-Sanskrit-naSati.wav

Jun 27, 2022

Ewe

English ewe (female sheep) comes from Proto-Indo-European *héu-i-s, pronounced something like [howis],  (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/ewe-from-PIE-h3owis.wav
The same root developed into Sanskrit अवि avi:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3owis-to-Sanskrit-avi.wav
and also Lithuanian avis:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-Howis-to-Lithuanian-avis2.wav

Jun 28, 2022 

/ˈadam kɔwɔˈd͡ʑɛjt͡ʂɨk/ @SoobPL commented: In Polish, it's owca /ˈɔf.t͡sa/. Maybe not so similar now, but it has the same root

Another attempt at *h₃:

Ewe (female sheep) comes from Proto-Indo-European *héu-i-s. I previously simulated that as [ħʷo:is], with a labialized voiceless pharyngeal fricative:
🔈eastern-origins/ewe-from-PIE-h3owis.wav

But there's evidence that *h₃ was voiced, therefore [ʕo:is]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/ewe-from-PIE-3owis.wav

This new simulation's a hybrid based on South Levantine Arabic عوّى‎ [ʕaw:a]. More at https://www.ancientsounds.net/laryngeals.html#h3euis

Sep 26, 2023

Eye

English eye comes from Proto-Indo-European *hokʷ, pronounced something like [okʷ] (like the oc- in ocular, which is related). Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/eye-from-PIE-h3okw.wav The same root developed into Urdu آنکھ aankh:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3okw-to-Urdu-aankh.wav

Jun 29, 2022

F

Fallow

English fallow - the pale brown colour of fallow deer etc - comes from Proto-Indo-European *polhḱ-éh₂- pronounced something like [polᵊk̟a]. Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/fallow-from-PIE-polh1keh2.wav
The same root developed into Sanskrit पलित palita, meaning "grey"
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-polh1keh2-to-Sanskrit-palita.wav

Jun 30, 2022

Fare

(See also ford)

English fare - to travel, as in "farewell" - comes from Proto-Indo-European *pór-e-, perhaps like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/fare-from-PIE-pore.wav
The same root developed into Persian پل pul, "bridge":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-pore-to-Persian-pul.wav

 Jul 1, 2022

Fart

English fart comes from Proto-Indo-European *pérd-e-, perhaps like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/fart-from-PIE-perde.wav
The same root developed into Urdu پادری pardri:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-perde-to-Urdu-pardri.wav

Jul 4, 2022

Nauris (@NaurisLa) commented:
Latvian pirst - to fart.
Also perdelis - fart, or more commonly used to describe a person behaving badly.

The perde- part of perdelis is almost unchanged since Proto-Indo-European.

Fast

English fast comes from Proto-Indo-European *phsth-o-, latterly pronounced [pastao]. This simulation ignores the final *h-o- [ao] part (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/fast-from-PIE-ph2st.wav
The same root developed into Armenian հաստ hast, meaning "firm, steady":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ph2st-to-Armenian-hast.wav

Jul 5, 2022

Father

English father comes from Proto-Indo-European *phtḗr, pronounced [pɑ̥té:r] (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/father-from-PIE-ph2ter.wav
This root developed into various forms in many languages, e.g. Persian پدر pedar:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ph2ter-to-Persian-pedar.wav

Jul 8, 2022

Feather

English feather comes from Proto-Indo-European *péth-r-, pronounced [pétar] (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/feather-from-PIE-peth2r.wav

The same root developed into Armenian փետուր petur, which is not hugely changed:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-peth2r-to-Armenian-petur.wav 

Jul 18, 2022

Fee

English fee comes from Proto-Indo-European *péḱu, meaning "cattle" (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/fee-from-PIE-peku.wav
The same root developed into Punjabi ਪਸ਼ੂ pashu:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-peku-to-Punjabi-pashu.wav

Cf. also pecu- in Latin pecuniary.

Jul 20, 2022

Fern

English "fern" comes from Proto-Indo-European *pornom, from *perH, *pterH (the same root as in Greek pter-, "wing"):
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/eastern-origins/fern-from-PIE-pornom.wav

The same root developed into Persian پر per "feather, wing":
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/eastern-origins/PIE-pterH-to-Persian-per.wav

Fern leaves do look like feathers, don't they?

Fern/feather/wing clip art. Source: https://webstockreview.net/images/fern-clipart-sliver-18.png

Aug 22, 2022

Few

English "few" comes from Proto-Indo-European *phu- [pau] "few, small":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/few-from-PIE-ph2u.wav
The same root developed into Urdu پُوت puut "son":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/PIE-ph2u-to-Urdu-puut.wav

Aug 24, 2022

Field

English field comes from Proto-Indo-European *pelth₂- [peltḁ] ~ [peltħ], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/field-from-PIE-pelth2.wav

Another form of the same root, *plth₂- [pl̩tɐ], developed into Sanskrit पृथु prthu "broad, wide":

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-plth2-to-Sanskrit-pRthu.wav

(See also flat, below)

Aug 25, 2022

Revisiting these etymologies from August: some propose *pelh₂- as the Proto-Indo-European root behind field. Its derived ("o-grade") form *polh₂- developed into Proto-Slavic *polʲe, in e.g. Polish pole, like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pelh2-to-Polish-pole.wav

The names "Pole, Polish, Poland" come from this root: Polaks were the "field-dwellers". This "field" word is found widely across Slavic languages, with small variations in pronunciation, e.g. Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian-Slovenian polje. Listen:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pelh2-to-BCS-polje.wav

Oct 6, 2022

Fiend

English fiend comes from Proto-Indo-European *ph₁-i-ont-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/fiend-from-PIE-ph1iont.wav
The same root developed into Sanskrit पीयति piyati "hate":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ph1iont-to-Sanskrit-piyati.wav

Aug 30, 2022


Fierce

English fierce is from Middle English fers, from Latin fer-us, from Proto-Indo-European *ĝhwēr-. Something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/English-fierce-from-PIE-ghwer.wav
(MP3 version: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/English-fierce-from-PIE-ghwer.mp3)
I left out the 2nd vowel in ferus.
In Iranian, Proto-Indo-European *ĝhwēr- developed into žver, thence sher (like in the Jungle Book tiger, Shir Khan). Listen:
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-ghwer-to-Persian-shir.wav
(MP3 version: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-ghwer-to-Persian-shir.mp3) Now it gets really interesting: Iranianشیر šīr was borrowed into Chinese and continued to evolve (e.g. to modern Mandarin shīzi 狮子 'lion'). Listen: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/Persian-shir-to-Mandarin-shizi.wav
(MP3 version: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/Persian-shir-to-Mandarin-shizi.mp3)
In short, 狮子 is cognate with fierce!

Important acknowledgements: thanks to Welsh for giving us gwers ("a lesson" - similar in sound but not related in meaning to PIE *ĝhwēr) and Lithuanian žvėr-is "beast".

Dec 11, 2017

Fight

English fight comes from Proto-Indo-European *peḱ-t-e, meaning "to comb", something like this (listen):
🔈 https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/fight-from-PIE-pekte.wav

From the same root, *poḱ-(s-mn̥) developed into Persian پشم pashm "wool":

🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pok-to-Persian-pashm.wav

Cf. "Pashmina", a loan word from Persian.

Aug 31, 2022

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/78/%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B4_%D9%BE%D8%B4%D9%85_%DA%AF%D8%B1%D9%81%D8%AA%D9%86_%DA%AF%D9%88%D8%B3%D9%81%D9%86%D8%AF_%D8%AF%D8%B1_%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%A7%DB%8C_%D8%B2%D8%A7%D9%84%DB%8C.jpg/320px-%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B4_%D9%BE%D8%B4%D9%85_%DA%AF%D8%B1%D9%81%D8%AA%D9%86_%DA%AF%D9%88%D8%B3%D9%81%D9%86%D8%AF_%D8%AF%D8%B1_%D8%B1%D9%88%D8%B3%D8%AA%D8%A7%DB%8C_%D8%B2%D8%A7%D9%84%DB%8C.jpg

Image from Farsi Wikipedia, CC BY-SA 4.0


Film

English film comes from Proto-Indo-European *pelmo; ignoring the final -o, something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pelm.wav
A related form, *pelno, developed into Bosnian pelena "diaper":

🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-peln-to-Bosnian-pelena.wav

Image source: https://i.ytimg.com/vi/9-yxkoWMyXA/maxresdefault.jpg
from an advertisement on YouTube, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-yxkoWMyXA


English find comes from Proto-Indo-European *pént-e-, meaning "path" or "bridge", something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/find-from-PIE-pente.wav
The same root developed into Vedic Sanskrit पन्थासो panthaso "path":

🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pente-to-Sanskrit-panthaaso.wav

Sep 9, 2022

Jonah Mann @jonahmann commented:

Same root also re-borrowed from an Iranian language into proto-Germanic after Germanic p > f, whence "path"!!

Fire

English fire comes from Proto-Indo-European *péh‐ur  [pa(ħ)ur],  something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/fire-from-PIE-pahur.wav
The same root developed into Balochi پُر phor "ashes, flames":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pahur-to-Balochi-phor.wav
(and Ancient Greek πῦρ [pyr], Latin pyra, pyre, pyro-, etc.)

Sep 12, 2022

First, former

The "fir-" part of English first comes from Proto-Indo-European *preh₂-, perhaps pronounced [pʰreɐ] or earlier [pʰreħ] (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/first-from-PIE-preh2.wav
The same root developed into Hindi प्रथम pratham (via Sanskrit), which also means "first":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-preh2-to-Hindi-pratham.wav

J Pystynen (@JLingPystynen) commented:
I don't think there's any evidence that there ever was an [e] in *eh₂; a-coloring is PIE already, & it seems likely that /eh₂/ → [ah₂] is at least in part really a rule inversion of pre-PIE *ă > PIE *e.
Cf. e.g. Early Modern English †a > (w)ɔ, ɔ(l), else æ (and not æ > ɔ).

To which I replied:

I agree. I argued in Diachronica XVII, 351‒387 that PIE 'laryngeals' were vocalic. But I recognise that is a non-standard view, so in this project I'm going with "standard" laryngeal theory (/e/ gets colored by a following fricative in early PIE), and we'll see where it takes us.

As a breakfast experiment, I modelled PIE */preh₂/ as [pra], and simulated the development of Proto-Germanic *fura from this *[pra]. The continuum from "first" back to PIE *[pra] then sounds like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/first-from-PIE-pra.wav

The "fir-" stem occurs in another guise in "former", from Proto-Indo-European *prh-mó- [pʰrɐmo]:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/former-from-PIE-prh2mo.wav
The same root developed into Lithuanian pirmo:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-prh2mo-to-Lithuanian-pirmo.wav Lithuanian pirmadienis, Monday, is "first-day". We will get to "Tuesday" later ...

Sep 13, 2022

Five

English five comes from Proto-Indo-European *penkwe, something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/five-from-PIE-penkwe.wav
The same root developed into e.g. Urdu پانچ panch:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-penkwe-to-Urdu-panch.wav

Sep 15, 2022

At https://www.ancientsounds.net/#five I've just added a bunch of simulations showing how five is related to Proto-Indo-Iranian and Sanskrit पञ्च pancha, from which come Urdu پانچ panch (borrowed into English “punch”, a drink made of 5 ingredients), Balochi پنچ‎ panch, Punjabi ਪੰਜ panj (as in ਪੰਜਾਬ Punj ab “(land of) five rivers”), Persian  پنج‎ panj, European Romani panzh, Ossetian фондз fondz and Pashto پنځه pinza.

And Welsh pump, which is not Indo-Iranian obviously.

Dec 12, 2023

Click on the text or arrows on this map to hear how words for "five" derive from Proto-Indo-European *pénkʷe (and its variant form *pnkʷt) in various Indo-European languages, ancient and modern, East and West.

https://www.ancientsounds.net/clickmap/clickmap-five.html

Jan 05, 2024

Flat, field

English flat comes from Proto-Indo-European *plth₂- [pl̩tɐ], something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/flat-from-PIE-plth2.wav

The same root developed into e.g. Sanskrit पृथु prthu "broad, wide":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-plth2-to-Sanskrit-pRthu.wav

English field comes from the same Proto-Indo-European root as "flat", but with a vowel (called "e grade" by philologists), *pelth₂- pronounced something like [peltḁ] ~ [peltħ] (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/field-from-PIE-pelth2.wav

Sep 15, 2022

Flax

English flax (from which linen is made) comes from Proto-Indo-European *pleḱ -t-, "to weave", something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/flax-from-PIE-plekt.wav
From the same root *pleḱ - developed Sanskrit प्रश्न prashna "woven basket":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-plekt-to-Sanskrit-praSna.wav

Flax flower

Image: Flower of flax, Linum usitatissimum
Source: https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Linum_usitatissimum_bgiu.jpg

English "pleat" and "plait" come via French from the Latin form of this root, plecto.

Sep 20, 2022

Flow

English flow comes from Proto-Indo-European *plṓu-e- (pronounced [pʰloʊə] not [pʰloʊe] in this simulation), something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/flow-from-PIE-ploue.wav

From the same root developed Sanskrit प्लवते plavate "dive":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ploue-to-Sanskrit-plavate.wav

Strikingly similar to Sanskrit प्लवते plavate, the same PIE root *plṓu-e- developed into Ukrainian плавати plavati "float, swim":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ploue-to-Ukrainian-plavati.wav
and similar words in other Slavonic languages, e.g. Slovene plavati.
Sep 21, 2022

    (Thanks to Madhav Deval, @madhav_deval, for correcting the Devanagari spelling of प्लवते plavate.)

Fodder, food

Fodder comes from Proto-Indo-European *peh₂-, pronounced something like [peħ, peɑ̥]:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/fodder-from-PIE-peh2.wav

Persian پاییدن payidan "protect, watch over" developed from the same root:
🔈eastern-origins/food-from-PIE-peh2.wav

Food also comes from same Proto-Indo-European root *peh₂-, something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/food-from-PIE-peh2.wav

Sep 22, 2022

Foe

English foe comes from Proto-Indo-European *poiḱ-, something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/foe-from-PIE-poik.wav

A derived form ("zero grade", lacking the main vowel *o) of the same root, i.e. *piḱ-, developed into the pish- part of Sanskrit पिशुन pishuna "evil":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pik-to-Sanskrit-piSuna.wav

Sep 26, 2022

Foot

English foot  comes from Proto-Indo-European *pōd-, something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/foot-from-PIE-pod.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit पद pad, borrowed as a "learned word" in Hindi:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pod-to-Hindi-pad.wav

Sep 29, 2022

Ford

(See also fare)

English ford comes from Proto-Indo-European *pr̥tu-  [pr̩tʰu], like this (omitting the final vowel):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/ford-from-PIE-prt.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit पिपर्ति piparti, meaning "bring over":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-prt-to-Sanskrit-piparti.wav

*pr̥t- also became Persian پل pul “bridge”. Here's a simulation of how *pr̥t-  developed into Urdu پل pul “bridge” (a loanword via Persian):
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-prt-to-Urdu-pul.wav

Image: The Kashkan bridge (Persian پل کشکان, pul kashkan), from https://mrbilit.com/mag/kashkan-bridge/

Oct 3, 2022

Four

English four is from Proto-Indo-European *kʷetwóres, via Old English feower, Proto-Germanic *fidwor and Pre-Proto-Germanic *hwidwor. Listen: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/four-from-PIE-kwetwores.mp3

(For an easier life, I ignore the -es ending until the very end.)

Dec 6, 2018

English four comes from Proto-Indo-European *kʷetwṓr-, like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/four-from-PIE-kwetwor.wav


The same root developed into Sanskrit चतुर् chatur:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kwetwor-to-Sanskrit-chatur.wav

Ukrainian чоти́ри chotýry:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kwetwor-to-Ukrainian-chotyry.wav

Persian چهار chahar:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kwetwor-to-Persian-chahar.wav

Image: "Four seasons", چهار فصل  (chahar fasl), the Persian title of a novel by صبا ارسطو (Saba Aristotle). From https://www.ketabrah.ir/%DA%A9%D8%AA%D8%A7%D8%A8-%DA%86%D9%87%D8%A7%D8%B1-%D9%81%D8%B5%D9%84/book/43818

Oct 3, 2022

Friend

English friend comes from Proto-Indo-European *priH-eh₂-, pronounced perhaps [pʰri:a:], like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/friend-from-PIE-priHeh2.wav

The same root developed into Kurdish ئافراندن afrandin meaning "create, creation":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-priHeh2-to-Kurdish-afirandin.wav

In the middle of the PIE-to-Kurdish simulation you can hear the derived form *priH-né-, which is also manifest in Sanskrit प्रीणाति priiṇaati "to please" (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-priHeh2-to-Sanskrit-priiNaati.wav
Oct 4, 2022

@ltmpph commented:

Polish 'przyjaciel' (< Proto-Slavik '*prijà- + -teľь'), "close friend".

@DerMenschensohn commented:

عفريت

[I.e. Arabic  عفريت /ʕifriːt/, a supernatural being (goblin, devil) from Arabian folklore, the name of which is borrowed from a Middle Iranian past participle āfrīd “created”, according to Wiktionary https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/%D8%B9%D9%81%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AA#Etymology]

Full

English full comes from Proto-Indo-European *plh-nó- (here pronounced as [pl̩n-], without the final *o), like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/full-from-PIE-plh1n.wav

The same root developed into Persian پر [pur]:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-plh1n-to-Persian-pur.wav
as in شکم پر shekampur "filled".

ترشی بادمجان شکم پر (torshi bademjan shekampor), stuffed pickled eggplant/aubergine.

Stuffed pickled eggplant/aubergine ترشی بادمجان شکم پر, (torshi bademjan shekampor), from Persian cookery site https://mschef.ir/%D8%B7%D8%B1%D8%B2-%D8%AA%D9%87%DB%8C%D9%87-%D8%AA%D8%B1%D8%B4%DB%8C-%D8%A8%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%85%D8%AC%D8%A7%D9%86-%D8%B4%DA%A9%D9%85-%D9%BE%D8%B1

The nasal of Proto-Indo-European *plh-nó- is preserved in Sanskrit पृणाति prnaati "fill", as in this example:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-plh1n-to-Sanskrit-prnaati.wav
Oct 7, 2022

Andreas Schätti @AndreasSchatti asked:
Does Russian полно also derive from this root?

Yes. Also Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian pun, in which the historical development of [u] from earlier *ol has an exact parallel in French (cf. fou vs. folle).

G

Gander, geese, goose, gosling

English goose and gander come from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰhens [gʱɐns], like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/gander-from-PIE-ghans.wav
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Eng-goose-from-PIE-ghans.wav

The same word *ǵʰans developed into Urdu ہنس [hans]:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghans-to-Urdu-hans.wav

Geese comes from Middle English [ge:s], from Anglo-Saxon [gø:s], the plural of gōs, from earlier [go:si], from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰhens [gʱɐns], like this (listen):

🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/geese-from-PIE-ghans.wav

Gos(ling) comes from the Anglo-Saxon singular gōs [go:s], also from *ǵʰhens:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/gosling-from-PIE-ghans.wav

Going southwards, PIE *ǵʰhens developed (eventually) into Urdu hans, like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghans-to-Urdu-hans.wav

(mp3: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-ghans-to-Urdu-hans.mp3)

Thanks to Qurrat-ul-Ain, a student from Pakistan who visited my lab for 6 months in 2017-18. She helped me with recordings of some Urdu words.

Mar 28, 2018

A pair of geese with lots of goslings standing on a riverbank

A pair of geese with lots of goslings standing on a riverbank. Source: https://www.photos-public-domain.com/2018/07/11/geese-with-lots-of-goslings/


Oct 10, 2022; Jan 16, 2024

Older posts:

Modern English goose comes from Anglo-Saxon gōs, like this:

wavs: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/Eng-goose-from-AS-gos.wav

mp3: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/Eng-goose-from-AS-gos.mp3

(Thanks to Prof. Laura Ashe, our voice of Anglo-Saxon.)

Anglo-Saxon gōs came from Proto-Indo-European *ghans (via Proto-Germanic *gans), like this:
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/AS-gos-from-PIE-ghans.wav
mp3: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/AS-gos-from-PIE-ghans.mp3

Jul 24, 2018


Gang

Northern English gang i.e. "to go", comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰengʰ-, something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/gang-from-PIE-ghengh.wav

The same root *ǵʰengʰ- developed into Sanskrit जङ्घा  janghaa and Urdu ٹانگ taang, "leg":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghengh-to-Sanskrit-janghaa.wav
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghengh-to-Urdu-taang.wav

Oct 11, 2022

Ghastly, ghost, aghast

Persian زشت zesht, meaning "ugly", comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰois-d-, something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghoisd-to-Persian-zesht.wav

English ghastly, ghost and aghast come from the same root:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/ghastly-from-PIE-ghoisd.wav

Persian version of movie poster for "The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly", with the word زشت‎ zesht "ugly" highlighted.
Image: Persian version of movie poster for "The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly", with the word زشت‎ zesht "ugly" highlighted.

Oct 19, 2022

Glad

Glad comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʰleh, [gʱleɐdʱ], something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/glad-from-PIE-ghleh2dh.wav
*gʰleh meant "bright, shiny" or "smooth". It developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian gladak,  "smooth":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghleh2dh-to-Bosnian-gladak.wav

I would be glad to eat this 👇

"Be sure to try this smooth and creamy spread that is irresistibly reminiscent of Nutella..." Image and text extract from Croatian cookery site https://gastro.24sata.hr/recepti/namaz-od-ljesnjaka-po-receptu-najpoznatije-britanske-blogerice-23674

Oct 20, 2022

Glee

Glee comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʰlei-, something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/glee-from-PIE-ghlei.wav

A related form of the same root, *gʰleu-, developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian glumiti "to act":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghleu-to-Bosnian-glumiti.wav

Image: Notice from a Belgrade drama school ("studio glume") Source: https://glumacki.studio/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/studio-template-3-1-1024x576.png

Oct 27, 2022

Go

Go comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰeh₁- [g̟ʱe:], something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/go-from-PIE-gheh1.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit जहाति jahaati "to abandon, turn away from":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-gheh1-to-Sanskrit-jahaati.wav
Oct 28, 2022

anonymous ebirder @benadamx commented:

wie gehts

Gold and yellow

Gold comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl-to; ignoring the final -o, something like this (listen):

🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/gold-from-PIE-ghlt.wav

The same root developed into Persian زرد zard "yellow":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghel-to-Persian-zard.wav

English yellow comes from another form of the same root, *ǵʰel-wos (here pronounced [g̟ʱelʋus]), like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/yellow-from-PIE-ghelwos.wav

*ǵʰel- also developed into Bosnian zelena "green":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghel-to-Bosnian-zelena.wav

The root also underlies Polish żółty "yellow" and złoty "gold".

Image: An Austrian gold ducat ("1 złoty Dukat Austriacki"), from a Polish numismatic site
https://www.mennicakrajowa.pl/pol_pl_1-zloty-Dukat-Austriacki-wysylka-24-h-650_2_2.jpg

Persian zard, gold, also gives its name to various golden-yellow rice pudding desserts; see:

The Moroccan Arabic word for banquet زردة zarda comes from Turkish zerde, a rice pudding with saffron (from Persian زرد zard 'yellow').
(A similarly named rice pudding زردہ zarda is also found in the north Indian / Pakistani cuisine) pic.twitter.com/t3msg2624B

— Hammad H Rind حماد حسن رند (@HammadHRind) January 2, 2022

Nov 3, 2022

Good

Good comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʰodʰ-eh₂- [gʱodʱa:] "fitting/suited", something like this (listen):

🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/good-from-PIE-ghodheh2.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit गध्य gadhya "to be seized (e.g. as booty)":

🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ghodheh2-to-Sanskrit-gadhya.wav

Nov 4, 2022

Goose, gosling

(See gander, above.)


Groom

Groom, as in "bride-groom", has nothing to do with grooming. Anglo-Saxon guma just means "man", and descends from Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm-on- "human", something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/groom-from-PIE-dhghmon.wav
In other languages, the meaning shifted to "earth", humans being creatures of earth. In Pashto, an Iranian language of Pakistan and Afghanistan, Proto-Indo-European *dʰǵʰm-on- developed into the first part [dzma] of ځمکه [dzmaka], "earth", something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dhghmon-to-Pashto-dzmakka.wav

The caption at the top of this image جغرافیه؛ ځمکه څه ډول جوړښت لري؟ (in Pashto) means "Geography: What is the structure of the earth?" The second word from the right, highlighted, is "zmaka", earth. Source: https://pa.azadiradio.com/a/32064357.html

Nov 7, 2022

H

Hale, whole

The somewhat archaic word hale, meaning "healthy", derives from Proto-Indo-European *koi-lo-, something like this (ignoring the final -o; listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/hale-from-PIE-koil.wav

The same root developed into Bosnian cijelo, "all, whole":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-koil-to-Bosnian-cijelo.wav

(The caption "16 pravila ishrane za isklesano cijelo tijelo" means "16 rules of nutrition for a chiseled whole body". From a Bosnian nutritionist website, https://body.ba/ishrana/nutricionizam/16-pravila-ishrane-za-isklesano-cijelo-tijelo/3357/7)

English whole is also from the same Proto-Indo-Euopean root, like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/whole-from-PIE-koil.wav

Nov 8, 2022

Hall

Hall comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱel-, something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/hall-from-PIE-kel.wav
The same root developed into Sanskrit शाला shaala, also meaning "hall":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kel-to-Sanskrit-Saala.wav

It's inherited in Hindi (in the headline below meaning "school")

Hindi newspaper story headlined समय पर शाला नहीं पहुंचे शिक्षक "Teachers did not reach school on time". The third word शाला, shaala, in this context means "school". From https://www.patrika.com/balaghat-news/teachers-did-not-reach-school-on-time-notice-issued-to-four-teachers-7693630/

Hang

Hang comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱónk-e- "to waver, be in suspense", something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/hang-from-PIE-konke.wav
The same root developed into Sanskrit शङ्क shanka "doubt":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-konke-to-Sanskrit-SaNka.wav
inherited in Hindi आसंका aasanka "fear", as in this headline:

Image from a YouTube news bulletin headline, "अब बिहार में जताई गई आसंका birdflu & coronavirus", meaning "Now fear of birdflu and coronavirus expressed in Bihar". The word preceding "birdflu", आसंका aasanka, is the modern Hindi descendant of the Sanskrit word शङ्क śaṅka.

Original source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eVJp0WZugAk (but that video is no longer on YouTube)

Hare

Hare comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱhs-en- [kḁsən], something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/hare-from-PIE-kh2sn.wav
The same root developed into Sanskrit शश shasha:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kh2sn-to-Sanskrit-shasha.wav
inherited in Hindi शशांक shashank "moon/hare", because of the "hare in the moon"

Image of a hare and a Sanskrit text from https://www.payer.de/amarakosa2/amara209b.htm, an online edition of the Amarakośa (अमरकोष), a thesaurus written by the Jain or Buddhist scholar Amarasimha around 5th or 6th century AD. 2. dvitīyaṃ kāṇḍam (Part Two), Section 2.9. siṃhādivargaḥ (lions and other animals).

post-ChronHib @ChronHib commented

On this topic: From the same stem with a feminine suffix *k̑h₂s-n-ih₂- comes Proto-Celtic *kannī-, which, with yet another suffix, is reflected in Welsh ceinach "hare". In a (hopefully very soon) forthcoming article I argue that the OIr. name Cainnech (of #Kilkenny fame) continues this word in Irish. See also@PIE_Animals's thread about hare in https://twitter.com/PIE_Animals/status/1288158598212866048

Nov 11, 2022

Harrow, harvest

The Punjabi word ਕਿਰਪਾਨ kirpān "dagger", such as the ceremonial dagger worn by Sikhs, comes from Proto-Indo-European *ker-p, something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kerp-to-Punjabi-kirpaan.wav

Picture of a kirpan (Punjabi ਕਿਰਪਾਨ) worn by a Sikh person. From https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/Kirpan_and_kara.jpg

Also in the mix in the first simulation is a recording of  Urdu کرپان krpaan "sword":
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Urdu-krpaan.wav

... NOT to claim or imply that Punjabi is derived from Urdu - it's not! - but they are cognate words in those languages; I just use the Urdu here for its sound.

English harrow (an agricultural tool with many blades) also derives from *kerp:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/harrow-from-PIE-kerp.wav

Nov 14, 2022

The English word "harvest" also comes from Proto-Indo-European *ker-p, something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/harvest-from-PIE-kerp.wav

Nov 15, 2022

Hate

The pronunciation of hate comes from Old English hete, from Proto-Germanic *hat(iz), from Post-PIE *k̂ad- (by Grimm's Law) from  *k̂ehd- (vocalization of the laryngeals). Something like this (listen):

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/hate-from-PIE-keh2d.wav
MP3: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/hate-from-PIE-keh2d.mp3

(There are no good "eastern" cognates of this word.)

Jul 23, 2020

Have

The English word have comes from Proto-Indo-European *khpéh₁- (pronounced something like [kapé:]), something like this, listen:

🔈eastern-origins/have-from-PIE-kh2peh1.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit कपटी kapaʈī, a “holding” – as much as can be held in the two hands joined, something like this:
 🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kh2peh1-to-Sanskrit-kapaTii.wav

Nov 17, 2022

Head

English head comes (via Anglo-Saxon heafod) from Proto-Indo-European *khp-ut- [kaput], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/head-from-PIE-kh2put.wav
A related form from the same root, *khp-ol-, developed into Sanskrit (and Nepali) कपाल kapaal "skull", which was then borrowed/adapted into Japanese as 瓦 kawara “roof tile”!
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kh2pol-to-Japanese-kawara.wav

First posted Nov 21, 2022; corrected Aug 2, 2023

Heart

English heart comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱerd, something like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/heart-from-PIE-kerd.wav

The same root developed into Hindi  हृदय hrday, something like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kerd-to-Hindi-hrday.wav


Image from "Health 360 in Hindi", a health education website, https://www.health360hindi.com/2019/02/5-heart-disease-test/
The caption, हृदय रोग के परीक्षण means "screening for heart disease"; हृदय hrdaya is the first (leftmost) word.

Nov 22, 2022

Martin J. Kümmel @mjkammun@mastodon.green commented:

Hindi हृदय is a loanword from Sanskrit, so it did not develop regularly. There is an (obsolete?) byform हिया hiyā which represents the regular outcome much better.

Heaven

English heaven comes from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ḱmon- [ħăk̟ʲmon], from *heḱmon-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/heaven-from-PIE-h2kmon.wav

The same root developed into Persian آسمان asman "sky", something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-Hekmon-to-Persian-asman.wav

آسمان asman also occurs in the name of the Iran Aseman Airlines!


An aeroplane of Iran Aseman Airlines in the sky. From https://cdnw.elicdn.com/Blog/wp-content/uploads

Interestingly, the Proto-Indo-European word *heḱmon- also developed into words for "anvil" and "stone" in various languages, in the ancient belief that the sky was made out of stone because stones (meteorites) fell from the sky. For example, that root developed into Lithuanian akmuõ, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-Hekmon-to-Lithuanian-akmuo.wav


The Barstyčių stone, a huge glacial rock, is the largest boulder in Lithuania. It is 13.4 m long, 7.5 m wide and 3.6 m high and lies in the open air in a clearing with trees in the background. From Lithuanian Wikipedia page https://lt.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barsty%C4%8Di%C5%B3_akmuo

*heḱmon- also developed into Ancient Greek ἄκμων akmon “anvil, meteoric stone, meteorite”, like this:

🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2ekmon-to-AncientGreek-akmon.wav

Nov 28, 2022; corrected and extended with improved simulations Aug 3, 2023.

Herd

English "herd" comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱerdʰ-eh₂- [k̟ʲerdʱɐ], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/herd-from-PIE-kerdhe.wav

The same root developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian krdo, krda, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kerdheh2-to-BCS-krda.wav

Wild horses galloping through water, from a Bosnian news website article about photo safaris near Mount Erciyes, in Kayseri, Turkey. The headline begins with the words "Krda konja", meaning "A herd of horses". Source: https://vijesti.ba/clanak/399576/krda-konja-atrakcija-za-zaljubljenike-u-fotografiju

The same root also developed into Slovenian čreda, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kerdhe-to-Slovenian-creda.wav


Image: Detail from a poster for a comedy film called, in Slovenian, Čréda ("The Flock"). Image source: https://www.kolosej.si/media/movies/2016/11/11/stado-00-l.jpg

Nov 29, 2022

Hew

English hew comes from Proto-Indo-European *kóuh₂- [kóuɐ̥], something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/hew-from-PIE-kouh2e.wav

The same root developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian-Slovenian kovač, meaning "smith" (and also as a common surname Kovač, "Smith"), something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kouh2e-to-Bosnian-kovaC.wav

Image: Cover of compact disk recorded by Croatian singer Mišo Kovač. From
https://webshop.crorec.hr/proizvod/mate-miso-kovac-miso-kovac/

Dec 01, 2022

High

English high comes from Proto-Indo-European *kóuk-o-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/high-from-PIE-kouko.wav

The same root, which seems to have meant "prominent" and also "curved", developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian kuka, "hook", something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kouko-to-Bosnian-kuka.wav

Dec 07, 2022

Hold

English hold comes from Proto-Indo-European *kel-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/hold-from-PIE-kel.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit कलयति kalayati "counts", something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kel-to-Sanskrit-kalayati.wav

(The Sanskrit stem कल kal- also means "to hold")


Dec 06, 2022

Home

English home comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱoim-os, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/home-from-PIE-koim.wav

From the same root, *ḱei-, developed Sanskrit शी shii “to lie down”, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kei-to-Sanskrit-shi.wav

In Hindi, the letter शी shi is nowadays used to transliterate the name of China's President Xi, and the interjection "sheeee" as in this GIF:


Dec 08, 2022

Honey

English honey comes from Proto-Indo-European *kn̥honk-o-s [kn̩aoŋk̟os], something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/honey-from-PIE-knh2onkos.wav

The same root developed into Hindi कनक kanak "gold" , something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-knh2onkos-to-Hindi-kanak.wav


Picture of gold bangles and other gold jewellery, with the Hindi word "Kanak", meaning gold, in the foreground. From a Hindi language website about synonyms of "kanak", gold. https://www.paryayvachishabd.co.in/2022/04/02/kanak-ka-paryayvachi-shabd/

Dec 09, 2022

Hook

English hook comes from Proto-Indo-European *khgo- [kɔgɔ], something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/hook-from-PIE-kh3go.wav

The same root developed into Persian چنگ chang, sometimes meaning “claw”, as pictured here (and also commonly meaning “harp”), something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kh3go-to-Persian-chang.wav


Picture of a "waste grabber" (چنگ ضایعات), from Iranian industrial equipment website https://daghayegh.com

Dec 12, 2022

Horn

English horn comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱr̥-n- [k̟ʲr̩n], something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/horn-from-PIE-krn.wav

(Fun fact: Cornwall”, the "horn" of South-West England, comes from Proto-Celtic *karnos “horn” + Old English wealh “stranger, foreigner, Welsh”.)

The same root developed into Sanskrit शृङ्ग shrnga, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-krn-to-Sanskrit-shrnga.wav
The Persian cognate of this word, سرنا sorna, a musical instrument, was borrowed into many languages, including Chinese 唢呐 (e.g. Mandarin suǒnà), .


Two sornas standing upright on a pedestal. The caption, in Persian, means "sorna instruments at Lorestan Falak Museum" From Iranian website https://sorna-music.ir/fa/sorna.aspx

In many languages, the stem of Proto-Indo-European *ḱr̥-n-, i.e. *ker-, means "head". For example, it developed into Northern (Kurmanji) Kurdish ser "head", something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ker-to-Kurdish-ser.wav

The same root developed into Armenian սար sar “peak, mountain”, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ker-to-Armenian-sar.wav

Dec 13, 2022

Hound

English hound comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱu-on-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/hound-from-PIE-kuon.wav

The same root developed into Armenian շուն shun, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kuon-to-Armenian-shun.wav
... and in Sanskrit, श्वन् shwan:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kuon-to-Sanskrit-shwan.wav

The images below however, are of (on the left) a coin of the pre-Roman, Ancient British king CUNO(BELIN), the "hound of Belinos", and (on the right) a 10th century British inscription of the later British or early Welsh form of the same name Conbelin. The ancient British king Cunobelin is the prototype of Shakespeare's Cymbeline (in name only).

Ancient British coin of Cunobelinos (died AD 42), inscribed CUNO, "hound". Source: old postcard from Colchester museum.
10th inscription of Conbelin
10th century inscription of the British/early Welsh name Conbelin, from the Cross of Conbelin, now at the Stones Museum, Margam.

is also the modern Irish word for hound (e.g. greyhound), and occurs in the name of the folklore hero Cú Chulainn, the "Hound of Culann".
🔈https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Cuchulainn-audio.ogg

Dec 16, 2022; revised Sept 29, 2023

Hue

A *laryngeal reflex in modern Persian: سیاه siyah "black", ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *yeh₁-, cognate with English hue. The final [h] is not a random one-off, but seems common/normal in Iranian Persian, Tajik etc. Listen:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/Persian-siyah-F2.wav

Jan 14, 2020

English hue comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱieh₁- [k̟ʲe:], earlier [k̟ʲeh], originally referring to a dark colour, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/hue-from-PIE-kieh1.wav

The same root developed into Persian سیاه siyah “black”, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kieh1-to-Persian-siyah.wav

This pronunciation is noteworthy as it preserves a laryngeal consonant at the end, important evidence about the ancestral pronunciation.


Image: An astronomical black hole, as depicted on the Persian astronomy website elmiha.com

Persian for "black hole" is siyah chol

Jan 03, 2023

Hundred

English hundred comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm [k̟ʲm̩tóm], earlier *dḱm̥-tó- [dk̟ʲm̩tó] something like this (ignoring the final [o]):
🔈eastern-origins/hundred-from-PIE-dkmt.wav

The same root developed into Ossetian сӕдӕ sada (compare Persian صد‎ sad), something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dkmt-to-Ossetian-sada.wav

Jan 04, 2023

I

I

English I comes from Proto-Indo-European *héǵh₂ [heɟɐ̥], something like this (ignoring the final [ɐ̥]):
🔈eastern-origins/I-from-PIE-h2eg.wav

The same root developed into Ossetian æз [az], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2eg-to-Ossetian-az.wav

(Compare Pashto زه‎ za [zə] 🔈eastern-origins/Pashto-za-M1.wav)

Jan 09, 2023

Ice

English ice comes from Proto-Indo-European *héiH-so [heiso], something like this (ignoring the final [o]):
🔈eastern-origins/ice-from-PIE-h1eiHs.wav

A related form of the same word, *heiH-ko- [heiko], developed into Urdu یخ yakh [jax] (a loan via Persian), something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1eiHko-to-Urdu-yakh.wav

Jan 10, 2023


bbbourq@lingo.lol commented:

So cool!

The Persian word is pronounced [jæx].

A neat compound word is یخچال [jæx.ˈt͡ʃɒl] n. : refrigerator; literally "ice pit"

Is

English is comes from Proto-Indo-European *hés-ti [ésti], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/is-from-PIE-h1esti.wav

The same word developed into Sanskrit अस्ति asti and Persian است ast, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1esti-to-Persian-ast.wav

Jan 11, 2023

J

Jowl

English jowl comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (perhaps [ʤebʱ]) something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/jowl-from-PIE-geb.wav

The same word *ǵebʰ- developed into Urdu جبڑا jabra "jaw", something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-geb-to-Urdu-jabra.wav

*ǵebʰ- is also the ancestor of Persian جویدن jawidan and Pashto [zoyəl] "to chew"
🔈eastern-origins/Pashto-zoyal-chew-JOWL.wav
Jan 16, 2023

K

Kill, quell

English kill comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʷelH- [gwel], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/kill-from-PIE-gwelH.wav

Quell is from the same root, which also developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian žaoka “stinger, barb” , something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwelH-to-Bosnian-Zaoka.wav

Jan 17, 2023

Kin, Kind

English kin and kind (i.e. sort) come from Proto-Indo-European *ǵenh₁- [g̟ʲenə], something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/kin-from-PIE-genh1.wav

🔈eastern-origins/kind-from-PIE-genh1.wav

The same root developed into Sanskrit जनति janati and Persian زادن‎ zadan (both meaning “give birth”) something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-genh1-to-Sanskrit-janati.wav

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-genh1-to-Persian-zadan.wav

Jan 18, 2023

Knee

English knee comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵneu- [g̟nəo], something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/knee-from-PIE-gneo.wav

A related form of the same root, *ǵonu-, developed into Sanskrit जानु jaanu, Persian and Urdu زانو zanu, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gonu-to-Urdu-zanu.wav

Person wearing shorts holding their bent left knee. Text in Persian below means "exercise for knee pain". The middle word, zanu (in Arabic letters), means "knee" in Persian and Urdu. Image source https://drhettehadi.com/exercise-for-knee-pain/

Jan 23, 2023

Know (see also "can")

English know comes from Proto-Indo-European *ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] (possibly the same sound as knee *ǵneu- [g̟nəo]), something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/know-from-PIE-gneh3.wav

Can is from the same root:
🔈eastern-origins/can-from-PIE-gneh3.wav
(The "gn" of "cognitive" too!)

It also developed into Urdu جاننا jaannaa and Lithuanian žinau something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gneh3-to-Urdu-jaannaa.wav
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gneh3-to-Lithuanian-Zinau.wav

Jan 24, 2023

bbbourq@lingo.lol commented:


L

Land

The name of the Lendians (Polish: Lędzianie), an ancient tribe, comes from Proto-Indo-European *lendh-, "land", something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Polish-L%C4%99dzianie-from-PIE-lendh.wav
Unlike those living in fields (Polish "pole"), Lendians lived on the uncultivated heath-land.

Polish tribes in antiquity, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lendians#/media/File:Plemiona_polskie.png. Lendians/Lędzianie are at lower left.

Polish tribes in antiquity, from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lendians#/media/File:Plemiona_polskie.png. Lendians/Lędzianie are at lower left.

Proto-Indo-European *lendh- also developed into English land (and similarly in various other languages), something like this:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-lendh-to-land.wav
Oct 6, 2022

(An almost unchanged version of this entry was posted on Mastodon on Jan 25, 2023.)

Lean

"To lean" comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱli-n- [k̟li:n] something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/lean-from-PIE-klin.wav

The full form of the root, *ḱlei-, also developed into Sanskrit श्रयते shrayate, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-klei-to-Sanskrit-Srayate.wav

As with loud, we see *ḱl develop regularly into Sanskrit shr.

Latin clino (which was borrowed into English in e.g. incline, etc.) is from the same root.

Jan 27, 2023

Leave

Leave, as in "to leave over", comes from Proto-Indo-European *loip, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/leave-from-PIE-loip.wav

A related form of this root, *leip, also developed into Polish lepić “to mould, be sticky”, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leip-to-Polish-lepiC.wav

Other descendants include Sanskrit लेपयति lepáyati “to smear” and Ancient Greek λιπαρός liparos “oily”.

Jan 31, 2023

Lend, loan

Lend comes from Proto-Indo-European *leikʷ, meaning "to leave", something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/lend-from-PIE-leikw.wav

This root also developed into Persian ریختن rikhtan, with a change in meaning (“pour, spill, sprinkle”), something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leikw-to-Persian-rikhtan.wav

Feb 03, 2023

Through a series of changes, loan descends from Proto-Indo-European *loikʷ-:
🔈eastern-origins/loan-from-PIE-loikw.wav
*loikʷ- was a form of *leikʷ-, "leave":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-loikw-from-leikw.wav

*leikʷ- also developed into Persian ریختن rikhtan “pour, spill, sprinkle”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leikw-to-Persian-rikhtan.wav

So, "loan" and "rikhtan" don't sound much alike and have quite different meanings, but are cognates even so!

A hand holding a glass jug pours water into a tumbler. A phrase in Persian text is superimposed on the image. The leftmost word of the text is "rikhtan", to pour.
A hand holding a glass jug pours water into a tumbler. The leftmost word of the Persian text superimposed on the image is ریختن rikhtan, "to pour". Source: https://namagard.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/pitcher-pouring-water-into-glass.jpg

Mar 01, 2023

Let

Let comes from Proto-Indo-European *lehd- [le:d], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/let-from-PIE-leh1d.wav

This root also developed into Albanian lodh [loð] “to tire”, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leh1d-to-Albanian-lodh.wav

Feb 07, 2023

Lick

Lick comes from Proto-Indo-European *liǵʰ-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/lick-from-PIE-ligh.wav
(The aspiration at the end of this simulation is voiceless [ʰ] not breathy-voiced [ʱ].)

This root also developed into Persian لیس lis, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ligh-to-Persian-lis.wav

Feb 13, 2023

Lie

Lie, as in "lie down", comes from Proto-Indo-European *légʰyo-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/lie-from-PIE-leghyo.wav

This root also developed into Bosnian ležati, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/lie-from-PIE-leghyo.wav

Lie as in "tell lies" comes from a completely different PIE root, *léugʰ-:
🔈eastern-origins/lie-from-PIE-leugh.wav
which developed into Bosnian lagati:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leugh-to-Bosnian-lagati.wav
Photo of a person lying down in a bed, clipped from an article in a Bosnian online magazine, Alo! The article title, “Zašto nikad ne treba ležati na desnoj strani”, means “Why you should never lie on your right side”.
Photo of a person lying down in a bed, clipped from a Bosnian online magazine, Alo! The title, “Zašto nikad ne treba ležati na desnoj strani”, means “Why you should never lie on your right side”. Source: https://aloonline.ba/

Feb 20, 2023

Light

Light (brightness) comes from Proto-Indo-European *leuk- [lɘʊk], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/light-from-PIE-leuk.wav

*leuk- also developed into words for "day" in Indo-Iranian languages, e.g. Balochi  روچ [roʧ], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leuk-to-Balochi-roch.wav
Sanskrit रोचते rochate "shine":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leuk-to-Sanskrit-rocate.wav
Kurdish roj [roʒ]:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leuk-to-Kurdish-roj.wav

Tajik рӯз, Persian روز, ruz:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leuk-to-Tajik-ruz.wav


A Persian greetings image for "Nowruz Mubarak", Happy New Year, literally "New-day Happy", which is written in green Persian lettering at the left of the image. The three leftmost letters on the first line read "ruz", meaning day. On the right of the image is a seasonal table display of good things to mark the coming of spring, fruits, sprouting greenery and a lit candle, to signify the new year.

Image source: https://blog.izapya.com/wp-content/uploads/2020/03/noroz1.jpeg

Feb 21, 2023

In a previous I post simulated how light (brightness) comes from Proto-Indo-European *leuk-. Light in weight comes from a different PIE word, *h₁lengʷʰ-to-. My simulation ignores the initial *h₁, as it was lost, and the suffix -to-, leaving just [lɐŋgʷʰ] for the root:

🔈eastern-origins/light-from-PIE-lengwh.wav
*h₁lengʷʰ- also developed into #Sanskrit लघु laghu, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leuk-to-Balochi-roch.wav

Feb 23, 2023

Lip

Lip comes from Proto-Indo-European *leb-, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/lip-from-PIE-leb.wav

*leb also developed into Persian لب lab, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leb-to-Persian-lab.wav
The phonetics term "labial" is also from the same root, via Latin labium.

Feb 24, 2023

Listen

Listen comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱleu-s [klɐʊs], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/listen-from-PIE-kleus.wav

*ḱleu-s also developed into Sanskrit श्रोष्यति shroshyati, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kleus-to-Sanskrit-SroSyati.wav
Quite similarly, *ḱleu-s also developed into Bosnian slušati:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kleus-to-Bosnian-sluSati.wav
Feb 27, 2023

Anonymous eBirder @benadamx commented on Twitter:

listen close

Andreas (aschaetti@hachyderm.io) asked:

Is this related to Middle High German and modern Swiss German 'lose(n)' = listen?

I'm not an expert, but it looks plausible, and according to Pokorny's dictionary - yes


Loan

Through a series of changes, loan descends from Proto-Indo-European *loikʷ-:
🔈eastern-origins/loan-from-PIE-loikw.wav

*loikʷ- was a form of *leikʷ-, "leave":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-loikw-from-leikw.wav

*leikʷ- also developed into Persian ریختن rikhtan “pour, spill, sprinkle”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leikw-to-Persian-rikhtan.wav

So, "loan" and "rikhtan" don't sound much alike and have quite different meanings, but are cognates even so!

A hand holding a glass jug pours water into a tumbler. A phrase in Persian text is superimposed on the image. The leftmost word of the text is ریختن "rikhtan", to pour. Source: https://namagard.com/wp-content/uploads/2018/02/pitcher-pouring-water-into-glass.jpg

Mar 01, 2023

Lock

Lock descends from Proto-Indo-European *leug- "bend":
🔈eastern-origins/lock-from-PIE-leug.wav

This suggests that something bent could have been used by Proto-Indo-European speakers as a closure or fastening of some kind. A related form, *lug-no-s, developed into Sanskrit रुग्ण rugna “bent” as well as "broken, diseased, sick, infirm:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-lugnos-to-Sanskrit-rugna.wav

Mar 06, 2023,

Long

(Twitter, Oct 10, 2018)

English long is related to Modern Persian دراز deraz. Long comes from Anglo-Saxon lang, which came from Proto-Indo-European *dlonghos something like this (I ignore the -os ending), listen:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/AS-lang-from-PIE-dlong.mp3   

Proto-Indo-European *dlonghos developed into Middle Persian derang, something like this:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-dlong-to-MPers-derang.mp3

Obviously we don't have recordings of Middle Persian; this derang is fiddled from a Low German speaker saying Drang.) Middle Persian derang developed into Modern Persian deraz, something like this, listen:
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/MPers-derang-to-Pers-deraz.mp3

The whole sequence from lang to deraz (with a few pitch changes along the way):
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/lang-to-deraz.mp3

(Update, Mar 07, 2023)

English long is related to Modern Persian دراز deraz. Long comes from Proto-Indo-European *dlonǵʰ- something like this (I ignore the final ʰ):

🔈eastern-origins/long-from-PIE-dlong.wav 

*dlonǵʰ- developed into Persian دراز deraz, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-dlong-to-Pers-deraz.wav

Loud

Loud comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱleu-t, something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/loud-from-PIE-kleut.wav
The same root also developed into Sanskrit श्रुत shruta “heard”, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kleut-to-Sanskrit-Sruta.wav

*ḱleu- is also behind Irish and Scottish Gaelic cluas "ear".

Jan 26, 2023

Previously, I showed how listen comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱleu-s "hear". Loud is from a related form *ḱleu-t [klɐʊt]:
🔈eastern-origins/loud-from-PIE-kleut.wav

*ḱleu-t also developed into Sanskrit श्रुत shruta “heard”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kleut-to-Sanskrit-Sruta.wav

*ḱleu- also meant "renown, fame, glory", and lies behind Slavic *slava “fame, glory”, as in the Ukrainian rallying-cry слава Україні, #SlavaUkraini !

Feb 28, 2023

Love

Love comes from Proto-Indo-European *lubʰ- something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/love-from-PIE-lubh.wav
*lubʰ- continued almost unchanged into Sanskrit लुभ्यति lubhyati, from which this audio file of PIE *lubʰ- has been edited:
🔈eastern-origins/Sanskrit-lubhyati.wav

Lust

Lust comes from Proto-Indo-European *lehs- [lɐ:s] something like this:

🔈eastern-origins/lust-from-PIE-leh2s.wav
*lehs- also lies behind the root ("lash") of Hindi अनभिलषित anabhilashit “undesired”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leh2s-to-Hindi-anabhilashit.wav
and Bosnian laskati “to flatter”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leh2s-to-Bosnian-laskati.wav
Mar 09, 2023

M

Maggot, Moth

Moth descends from Proto-Indo-European *mot-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/moth-from-PIE-mot.wav

Maggot also descends (via Middle English maddock, maðek) from the same stem:
🔈eastern-origins/maggot-from-PIE-mot.wav

*mot- also developed into Belarusian мотыль matil “butterfly”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mot-to-Belarusian-matylj.wav
and Persian ملخ malakh “locust, grasshopper”, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mot-to-Persian-malax.wav

Photograph of a grasshopper, from a photography site, persiangraphic.com The title written in Persian script above the picture means "grasshopper image". The second (leftmost) word, highlighted, is "malakh", grasshopper.

May 02, 2023

Man

Man has come down to us almost unchanged over like 6000 years, from Proto-Indo-European *man-us, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/man-from-PIE-manus.wav
*man-us also lies behind Bengali মানুষ manush:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-manus-to-Bengali-manush.wav and many similar words in other languages.

Mar 13, 2023

Mane

Mane comes from Proto-Indo-European *moneh₂- (here synthesized as [monɐ̤ɦ]), something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mane-from-PIE-moneh2.wav

*moneh₂- also evolved into Marathi मान maan “nape”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-moneh2-to-Marathi-maan.wav

Screenshot from a Marathi-language health news website, showing a photograph and headline. The photograph gives partial views of three people rubbing the back of their neck as if in pain or discomfort. The person at centre of the image is photographed from behind, and the photo has a brightly glowing image of the spinal cord superimposed in the person's neck. Below the image, a headline in Marathi and English reads "Home Remedies for Neck Pain In Marathi"; a word highlighted at left in the Marathi version of the headline is "maan", meaning neck. Image source: Screenshot from https://marathi.popxo.com/article/home-remedies-for-neck-pain-in-marathi/
Image: Screenshot from a Marathi-language health news website; the headline in Marathi and English reads "Home Remedies for Neck Pain In Marathi". The word highlighted at left in the Marathi version of the headline is "maan", meaning neck. Source: Screenshot from https://marathi.popxo.com/article/home-remedies-for-neck-pain-in-marathi/

Mar 14, 2023

Many

Many comes from Proto-Indo-European *monogʰo, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/many-from-PIE-monogho.wav

*monogʰo also evolved into mnogo in Bosnian, and more or less identical or similar pronunciations in other Slavic languages:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-monogho-to-Bosnian-mnogo.wav

Mar 23, 2023

March

The Persian word for border, marz ( مرز ), comes from Proto-Indo-European *morǵ-eh₂, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-morgeh2-to-Persian-marz.wav
The somewhat archaic English word march, meaning "frontier region", as in "the Welsh Marches" and the name of the Anglo-Saxon kingdom of Mercia, comes from same root *morǵ-eh₂:
🔈eastern-origins/march-from-PIE-morgeh2.wav

A long, high, barbed-wire fence near the border between Iran and Pakistan. Behind the fence is a range of low mountains. In front of the fence, in the foreground, are two green road signs, with text in Persian and Roman letters. The lower sign, pointing left, reads "Zahedan". The upper sign, pointing right, reads "Pakestan Bor.", short for "Border". The Persian text begins with the word "marz", in Arabic letters, which is Persian for "border".

Image: Fence near the border between Iran and Pakistan. The Persian text on the upper sign begins with the word "marz", in Arabic letters, Persian for "border".

Mar 24, 2023

May, might

The modal verb may, related to both the verb and the noun might, comes from Proto-Indo-European *mogʰ-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/may-from-PIE-mogh.wav

The same root *mogʰ- also developed into Sanskrit मघ magha “power”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mogh-to-Sanskrit-magha.wav

As these are rather abstract words, the image here is of a sound spectrogram of the PIE *mogʰ simulation.


Sound spectrogram, segmental labels and waveform of the PIE *mogʰ simulation. Voicing, shown by vertical stripes in the spectrogram and regular pulses in the waveform, extends all the way through even the final aspiration, ʱ.

Mar 28, 2023

Mead

Mead, the honey wine, comes from Proto-Indo-European *medʰ-u-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mead-from-PIE-medhu.wav

The same root also developed into Sanskrit मधु madhu:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-medhu-to-Sanskrit-madhu.wav

The Tocharian descendent mjət or mit "honey" was borrowed into Chinese 蜜 , Min Dong [miˀt]:
🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/%E8%9C%9C_mit_Min_Dong.wav
and was then borrowed in Japanese 蜜 mitsu!

Proto-Indo-European *medʰ-u- descended with very little change to Lithuanian medus “honey”, which I used (without the final [s]) as a proxy recording for *medʰ-u-

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-medhu-to-Lithuanian-medus.wav

Mar 30, 2023

An older post: Chinese 蜜 "honey" (Mandarin: ) is a loan-word from Indo-European Tocharian mjət, mit (cognate with mead). In Min Dong Chinese:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/%E8%9C%9C_mit_Min_Dong.wav

Japanese 蜜, mitsu, was borrowed from Chinese. Proto-Indo-European *médʰu has travelled a long way!

Jul 5, 2017

Maxwell (@domanchich) commented:

It also went into Proto-Uralic *mete Hungarian méz, "honey" Finnish & Estonian mesi, "nectar" Samic miehta & mietâ, "honey" Plus some examples from Komi, Udmurt, Mari, Erzya & Moksha

Meal

Meal, meaning ground food, descends from Proto-Indo-European *melh-uo- [meləwɔ], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/meal-from-PIE-melh1uo.wav

The stem *melh₁- "grind, rub" also descended into Persian مالیدن malidan “rub”, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-melh1-to-Persian-malidan.wav
and Urdu ملنا malna “rubbing”
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-melh1-to-Urdu-malna.wav

Apr 04, 2023

@MmeRoux commented

 the French word for a grinding stone is 'meule' Same origin I guess?

Yes it is, from the same PIE stem via Latin mola. As also in "molars" i.e. grinding teeth. English "mill" as well.

Mere

Bosnia does not have a long coastline; as in many other Slavic languages, its word for sea is more, which descended with little change from Proto-Indo-European *mori-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mori-to-Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian-more.wav

English mere (i.e. lake) descends from the same root:
🔈eastern-origins/mere-from-PIE-mori.wav

So do Latin mare, French mer, German Meer, Irish muir, Welsh môr, Lithuanian mãrė, and Ossetian mal.


Front view of the Motel More, meaning "Sea Motel", at Neum on the Bosnian Adriatic coast.

Front view of the Motel More, meaning "Sea Motel", at Neum on the Bosnian Adriatic coast.

Apr 03, 2023

Mete

English mete (out) descends from Proto-Indo-European *méd-e-, "to measure", something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mete-from-PIE-mede.wav
Empty - the "mpt" especially - is from the same stem, the intrusive [p] arising from a slip in timing of nasality, lip opening and voicing of [m].
🔈eastern-origins/empty-from-PIE-mede.wav

*méd-e- also descended into Armenian միտք ‎mitk’ “thought” , something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mede-to-Armenian-mitk.wav

Apr 13, 2023

Mid

English mid (out) descends from Proto-Indo-European *medʰ-io- [medʱjo], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mid-from-PIE-medhio.wav

*medʰ-io- also descended into Sanskrit मध्य madhya, as in the name of the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh "middle region", something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-medhio-to-Sanskrit-madhya.wav

A map showing the states of India, with the state of Madhya Pradesh, lying in the centre of India, picked out in red.Image source: Wikimedia Commonshttps://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF_%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%B6#/media/%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0:IN-MP.svg
Image: A map showing the states of India, with the state of Madhya Pradesh, lying in the centre of India, picked out in red. From Wikimedia Commons https://hi.wikipedia.org/wiki/%E0%A4%AE%E0%A4%A7%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF_%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%A6%E0%A5%87%E0%A4%B6#/media/%E0%A4%9A%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%A4%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B0:IN-MP.svg

Apr 14, 2023

Milk

Milk descends from Proto-Indo-European *hmelǵ- [ħmelg, ɐ̥melg], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/milk-from-PIE-h2melg.wav

*hmelǵ- also descended into Sanskrit मर्जति marjati “to clean, wipe”, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2melg-to-Sanskrit-marjati.wav

and into Ancient Greek ἀμέλγω ‎amelgo, the initial [a] of which gives evidence for the pronunciation of *h₂:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2melg-to-AncientGreek-amelgo.wav

Apr 17, 2023

Mind

Mind descends from Anglo-Saxon mynd, from Proto-Germanic *mundi, from Proto-Indo-European *mn-ti-, a derived form of *men-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/mind-from-PIE-men.wav

*men- also descended (via Sanskrit) into Bengali মানা mana “accept, obey, pay heed to”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-men-to-Bengali-mana.wav

Mental, Latin mens, and Lithuanian mintis are from the same root.

Apr 18, 2023

Mingle

Mingle descends from Proto-Indo-European *monk-, a derived form of *menk-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/mingle-from-PIE-menk.wav

*menk- also descended into Persian آمیختن amekhtan “mix, mingle, blend, couple”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-menk-to-Persian-amekhtan.wav

to Sanskrit मचते machate “to be arrogant”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-menk-to-Sanskrit-macate.wav

and to Bosnian mek “soft”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-menk-to-Bosnian-mek.wav

A flashcard from a Persian website teaching English language. Headline: the English phrase "to couple". Second line: guide to the pronunciation of "couple" in IPA phonemic notation. Third line: the Persian verb "amekhlan", written in Persian script. Below that, a circular UK flag (union jack) and the phrase "The two train cars had been coupled together", with its translation into Persian beneath that.
A flashcard from a Persian website teaching English language. Headline: the English phrase "to couple". Second line: guide to the pronunciation of "couple" in IPA phonemic notation. Third line: the Persian verb "amekhlan", written in Persian script. Below that, a circular UK flag (union jack) and the phrase "The two train cars had been coupled together", with its translation into Persian beneath that. Source: https://dic.b-amooz.com/en/dictionary/photos/35682/1080/couple.jpg

Apr 19, 2023

Mirth

Mirth descends via Anglo-Saxon merġþ (“merry+th”) from Proto-Indo-European *mrǵʰ-u-, meaning “short”, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/mirth-from-PIE-mrghu.wav
The same root also descended into Sanskrit मुहु muhu “short”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mrghu-to-Sanskrit-muhu.wav

(These simulations sound a bit more "synthetic" than I would have liked, so I hope to re-do and improve them in the future.)

Apr 21, 2023

Mist

Mist descends from Proto-Indo-European *hmigʰ- [ŏmigʱ], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/mist-from-PIE-h3migh.wav

The same root also descended into Persian مه meh:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3migh-to-Persian-meh.wav

The suffixed form *hmigʰ-leh₂ [ŏmigʱlɐ:] developed into Modern Greek ομίχλη omikhli:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3migh-to-ModernGreek-omixli.wav

A misty view in a forest. The written caption above, in Persian, means "mist in the Amazon jungle" (meh dar jangal amazoon). The first i.e. rightmost word, highlighted, is "meh", meaning fog or mist.

Apr 24, 2023

Moon, month

Moon descends from Proto-Indo-European *méhnos [me:nos], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/moon-from-PIE-meh1nos.wav

The same root also descended into Persian ماه mah:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-meh1nos-to-Persian-mah.wav

In Persian, Balochi and Urdu ماه mah, the final [h] is most likely descended from the Proto-Indo-European word-final *s, not the medial *h₁.


Language-learning flashcard, showing a picture of the full moon over mountains, with a tree in the foreground at left. Superimposed on the image is the Persian word for moon, in Persian script, and beneath it the pronunciation in Roman letters, "Mâh". Beneath that, the English translation "moon; month". Source: Pinterest image https://i.pinimg.com/originals/1c/2c/ed/1c2cedaeac0550237586a17075ec0342.png Originally from Persian language and travel blog, www.mypersiancorner.com

Apr 25, 2023

Month comes, via Anglo-Saxon mōnaþ, from Proto-Indo-European *méh₁-not [me:not], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/month-from-PIE-meh1not.wav

It is related to *méh₁-nos [me:nos] “moon”, from the stem *méh₁- “measure”.

Feb 20, 2024

Morning

Morn(ing) descends from Proto-Indo-European *mrk-on [mr̩:k], something like this (ignoring the suffix -on):
🔈eastern-origins/morn-from-PIE-mrHk.wav

(To)morrow is from the same root:
🔈eastern-origins/tomorrow-from-PIE-mrHk.wav

The same root also descended into Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian mrak “dark, dusk”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mrHk-to-Bosnian-mrak.wav


Three rolls of dark baklava (in Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian: "mrak baklava"), from a recipe website https://www.recepti.com/kuvar/kolaci/13000-mrak-baklava
Apr 27, 2023

Moss

Moss descends from Proto-Indo-European *meus-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/moss-from-PIE-meus.wav

A related form of the same root (the zero-grade) *mus-o-
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-meus-to-PIE-muso.wav
descended into Ukrainian мох mokh:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-muso-to-Ukrainian-mox.wav




Picture of a clear plastic bag of Sphagnum Moss, from a Ukrainian online gardening shop. The large text on the label reads "mokh sphagnum", in Cyrillic script. Source: https://gileya.com.ua/product/moh_sfagnum_karpatskij

The same root also descended into Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian mahovina:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-muso-to-Bosnian-mahovina.wav

Apr 28, 2023


Moth

See Maggot, above.

Mother

Mother descends from Proto-Indo-European *mehtḗr [maté:r], earlier [meħté:r], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mother-from-PIE-meh2ter.wav

*mehtḗr also developed into Persian مادر modar:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-meh2ter-to-Persian-modar.wav
and related forms in most if not all other Indo-European languages.


Photograph of an elderly woman, with a poem in Persian script honoring and expressing love for the author's mother. The heading, in large Persian script, says "modar", meaning mother. Source: https://khabarsearch.ir

May 03, 2023

Mould, mold

Mo(u)ld descends from Proto-Indo-European *ml̥h-téh₂ [ml̩:teħ], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mould-from-PIE-mlh2teh2.wav

*ml̥h-téh₂ may be related to the root *melh₁- (though the contrast between *h₁ and *h₂ makes this a little problematic, unless there was a variation or neutralization) which also lies behind "meal" and "mill". The derived form *ml̥h₂-tó- developed into Sanskrit and Hindi मृदा mrda “soil, clay”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-mlh2dh-to-Sanskrit-mrda.wav


On the left, two green leafy shoots arising from a semicircular ball of soil. Beneath it, the words "World Soil Day December 5th", with "Soil" written in brown soil-like lettering. On the right, a Hindi phrase, the first three words of which mean "World Soil Day". The second word, soil, is pronounced mrda. From a Hindi educational website https://www.mpgkpdf.com/

May 05, 2023

Mourn

Mourn descends from Proto-Indo-European *mer something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mourn-from-PIE-mer.wav

The prefixed form of that root, *smer, developed into the stem of Sanskrit  स्मरति smarati “remember”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-smer-to-Sanskrit-smarati.wav
and Persian شمردن shemordan “to count”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-smer-to-Persian-shemordan.wav


Detail from a Persian children's poster. The title "counting" (shemordan) is written in Persian in large, multicolored letters. Below it are three panels: at left, one containing a drawing of a giraffe and the numeral 1 in Arabic lettering; on the upper right, two ladybirds and the numeral 2 in Arabic lettering; and on the lower right, three whales and the numeral 3 in Arabic lettering. The web page from which this was downloaded now appears to be a dead link. (https://dani.ir/store/products/detail/18848)

May 09, 2023

Mouse, mice

Mouse descends from Proto-Indo-European *muh₁s- [mu:s], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/mouse-from-PIE-muh1s.wav

The same root developed into the Persian موش mush:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-muh1s-to-Persian-muS.wav

Similar forms are found in Sanskrit मूष् mūṣ, Anglo-Saxon mūs, Latin mūs, West Frisian mûs etc., showing how little/slowly this word has changed in thousands of years.


Cover of a Persian elementary school book called Mouse, by Fariba Hamtian. The picture shows two cartoon-like mice surrounded by garbage, on a hillside overlooking a modern city with high-rise buildings.

May 10, 2023


The plural form mice comes, via Anglo-Saxon mȳs (ȳ is like German ü), from Proto-Germanic *musi-, the [u] being affected by the following [i], a process termed i-umlaut by historical linguists. The ultimate source is Proto-Indo-European *muh₁s [mu:s], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/mice-from-PIE-muh1s.wav

Feb 21, 2024

Much

Ancient Greek μέγας [megas], "great", came from (and is a passable model for) Proto-Indo-European *meǵh₂. Listen: 🔈eastern-origins/AncientGreek-megas-from-PIE-megh2.mp3

English much also descends from Proto-Indo-European *meǵh₂, via Anglo-Saxon micel and Proto-Germanic *mekila- (here, just [meki] ... I have to get rid of the [l] somewhere along the line). Listen: 🔈eastern-origins/much-from-PIE-megh2.mp3
Proto-Indo-European *meǵh₂ also has descendants in many other modern languages, including Kurdish mezin and Kurmanji Kurdish mazin. Listen:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-megh2-to-Kurmanji-mazin.mp3

(The change from *ǵ to [z] is usual in many so-called "Eastern" languages.)

Mar 25, 2021

The Anglo-Saxon ancestor of much, micel, survives today in place-names such as Meikle Ferry (Scotland), Mickle Fell (County Durham), Micheldever (Hampshire), and in the idiom "many a little makes a mickle". I learned that idiom as a child in an alternative form, "many a mickle maks a muckle" (in a pseudo-Scottish accent), but that doesn't make sense because mickle and muckle mean the same thing i.e. much.

Murder

Murder descends from Proto-Indo-European *mŕ-to- [mr̩to], something like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/murder-from-PIE-mrto.wav

*mŕ-to- is from the root *mer-
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-mrto-from-PIE-mer.wav

*mer- also developed into Persian مردن mordan “to die”
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-mer-to-Persian-mordan.wav

Other cognates include mortal, Latin mortuus, and Romani mer.

May 11, 2023

N

Nail

Nail comes from Proto-Indo-European *hnogʷʰ [ŏ̥nogʷʱ], something like:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/nail-from-PIE-h3nogwh.wav

The pronunciation of *h₃ as an unstressed vowel like [ŏ] is suggested by its development into Ancient Greek ὄνυξ (onyx), Latin unguis (which developed into French ongle), and Romani [wundʒia].

*hnogʷʰ developed into Persian ناخن nakhon, in which *h₃ was lost:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3nogwh-to-Persian-naxon.wav


Image: Fingernails in light pink nail polish with a stylized cat's face painted in black on each one. In the lower part of the figure is a caption in black Persian script, below which is a larger caption in white Persian script against a brown background. The second word from the right, picked out in a dark red ellipse, is the Persian word "nakhon", meaning nail. From an Iranian nail art website https://naznakhon.ir/461/make-childrens-nails-so-beautiful/

May 12, 2023

Name

Name comes from Proto-Indo-European *hnéhmen [ŏ̥no:men], something like:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/name-from-PIE-h3neh3men.wav

The pronunciation of *h₃ as an unstressed vowel like [ŏ] is suggested by its development into Ancient Greek ὄνομα onoma (but this is debated).

*hnéhmen developed into Persian نام naam, in which *h₃ was lost:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3neh3men-to-Persian-naam.wav

May 15, 2023

Narrow

Narrow comes from Proto-Indo-European *ner, something like:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/narrow-from-PIE-ner.wav

*ner also developed into Sanskrit नृत्य nrtya “dance”, which also survives in Hindi:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ner-to-Sanskrit-nrtya.wav

A web page with a large heading in Hindi script, meaning "Folk Dances of Maharashtra". The final word, ringed in a red ellipse, is the Sanskrit and Hindi word nrtiya, "dances". Below the heading are six photos of traditional Indian dancers.
Image: A web page with a large heading in Hindi script, meaning "Folk Dances of Maharashtra". The final word, ringed in a red ellipse, is the Sanskrit and Hindi word nrtiya, "dances". Originally from https://www.gktimer.in/2021/09/traditional-folk-dances-of-maharashtra-in-hindi.html, but this appears to be a dead link.

May 16, 2023

Navel

Navel comes from #Proto-Indo-European *hnobʰ-l-on- [onóbʰlon], something like:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/navel-from-PIE-h3nobhlon.wav

*h₃ as an unstressed [ŏ] is suggested by its outcomes in Ancient Greek omphalós and Latin umbilicus.

*hnobʰ- developed into Sanskrit नभ्य nabhya (hence *bʰ, though *h₃ was lost):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3nobh-to-Sanskrit-nabhya.wav

and Persian ناف naf:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3nobh-to-Persian-naf.wav

May 17, 2023

Lubotsky (REF) associates the meaning "hub of a wheel" with this word too.

Nest

Nest, a place of sitting, comes from Proto-Indo-European *ni-sd-o (here pronounced [nizdo]), something like:
🔈eastern-origins/nest-from-PIE-nizdo.wav

The stem *sd is a form of *sed, “sit”, which also lies behind seat, set etc. (See entries below.)

*ni-sd-o developed into Sanskrit नीड nida:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-nizdo-to-Sanskrit-niiDa.wav
which developed into Hindi नीड़ nir:
🔈eastern-origins/Sanskrit-niiDa-to-Hindi-nir.wav

Jun 05, 2023

*ni-sd-o also led to Pashto ناست nast “seated, sitting”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-nizdo-to-Pashto-nast.wav

and Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian gnijezdo “nest”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-nizdo-to-BCS-gnijezdo.wav

Feb 22, 2024


Cover of a book of children's poems called "Niir Sabhi ka Pyara Hai", by Aparna Sharma. The first word of the title means "nest". Below the title is a photograph of two small birds sitting in a nest on the branch of a tree.
Image: Cover of a book of children's poems called "Niir Sabhi ka Pyara Hai", by Aparna Sharma. The first word of the title, niir, means "nest". From Indian online bookshop https://www.exoticindiaart.com/book/details/book/need-sabhi-ka-pyara-hai-collection-of-children-s-poems-mze314/



Studying spectrograms of 10's of tokens of nest, in English, Flemish and German. The Southern British English ones show substantial devoicing in the latter 40-50% of the vowel (the image above is typical), i.e. [nehst]. US, not so much. German and Flemish, not at all.

Sep 16, 2022

New

Nowruz is the Persian New Year festival at the Spring Equinox. Nowruz means "new light"; now (pronounced like English "no") comes from Proto-Indo-European *neu-io, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-neuio-to-Persian-noo.wav

And روز ruz descends from Proto-Indo-European *leuk- [lɘʊk]:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-leuk-to-Tajik-ruz.wav

English new and "light" are from the same roots, *neu-io and *leuk- :
🔈eastern-origins/new-from-PIE-neuio.wav
🔈eastern-origins/light-from-PIE-leuk.wav

(See also "light" above)

Mar 20, 2023

Night

Night comes from Proto-Indo-European *nokʷt-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/night-from-PIE-nokwt.wav
*nokʷt- also developed into Sanskrit नक्तम् naktam:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-nokwt-to-Sanskrit-naktam.wav
and Lithuanian naktis:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-nokwts-to-Lithuanian-naktis.wav

A cartoon-like poster from Kaunas Zoo, advertising "Zoo naktis" (Zoo night). A dark blue background with a crescent moon over a teepee. In the background, many pairs of yellow eyes, like animals in the dark. In the foreground, either side of the teepee, silhouettes of a frog, an owl, a bird and a cat-like head, with yellow glowing eyes.

Image: A cartoon-like poster from Kaunas Zoo, advertising "Zoo naktis" (Zoo night).

Jun 07, 2023

MORE ON THE GREAT VOWEL SHIFT: THERE AND BACK AGAIN

One reason why English spelling looks odd to people literate in other languages is that the pronunciation of long vowels has changed radically since Medieval times, e.g. "igh" is pronounced [aɪ], not [ɪg].
For example, night is pronounced [naɪt]. In Middle English, it was also spelled night (or niȝt) but pronounced [ni:t], i.e. like modern-day "neat". Earlier, it was pronounced [nixt], as in Scots nicht. Here's a simulation, going backwards in time:
🔈eastern-origins/GVS/night-from-AS-niht.wav

So, because of this Great Vowel Shift, we have [aɪ] coming from [eɪ], [eɪ] coming from [i:], and in this case, [i:] comes from [ix] (or [iç] - there was probably some degree of variation).

Beside the Old English spelling niht, there also exist nyht, nieht, neaht, neht, and næht. Those variations in spelling reflect dialect variation and also older, more conservative pronunciations vs. newer, more innovative pronunciations. Because of forms like Dutch nacht and German Nacht, Old English niht, neht, næht are all traced back to Proto-Germanic *naht. Here's my audio simulation of how Old English niht developed from Proto-Germanic *naht (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/GVS/AS-niht-from-PGmc-naht.wav

So, the development of modern [aɪ] from [eɪ] from [i:] seen in the Great Vowel Shift is a U-turn on the earlier development of [ɪ] from [e] from [a]!

Jun 24, 2022

Nine

(Older post:)

English nine [naɪn] comes from Middle/Old English [ni:n], which is from Proto-Germanic *nigon (perhaps [niɣɵn]), from Proto-Indo-European *hnewhn̩/m (Mallory/Adams) or *(h)néwn̩ (Ringe): I'm going with [neun] or [neum]. Listen:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/nine-from-PIE-newhm.mp3

It's not quite right, because [naɪn] should go through [neɪn] on the way to [ni:n], but this simulation goes via something like [noɪn]. But it's a start.

Nov 21, 2019

(Improved simulations:)

Nine comes from Proto-Indo-European *h₁néun, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/nine-from-PIE-h1neun.wav

(Here I'm following Kroonen's reconstruction *h₁néun, which is consistent with Ringe's somewhat less committal *(h₁)néwn̩ and different from (Mallory and Adams's *hnewhn̩/m)


*h₁néun also developed into Persian نُه noh:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1neun-to-Persian-noh.wav

Evidence for an initial *h₁ "laryngeal" comes from its development into a vowel in Ancient and Modern Greek εννέα ennéa:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1neun-to-AncientGreek-ennea.wav

Additional evidence for an initial *h₁ "laryngeal" comes from its development into a vowel in Armenian ինը ina:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1neun-to-Armenian-ina.wav

A graphic in Persian that says, in a green font, 'adad (number - an Arabic loan-word), the Persian word noh (nine), in a red font, and a cartoonish, anthropomorphized illustration of the digit 9.

Image: A graphic in Persian that says عدد 'adad (number - an Arabic loan-word) نه noh (nine). Source: https://www.aparat.com/v/NasUZ/%D8%A7%D9%86%DB%8C%D9%85%DB%8C%D8%B4%D9%86_%D9%88_%D8%B4%D8%B9%D8%B1_%D8%A2%D9%85%D9%88%D8%B2%D8%B4_%D8%B9%D8%AF%D8%AF9_%D9%86%D9%87

Jun 8-9, 2023

Nit

Nit comes from Proto-Indo-European *ḱh₃nid- [kɵníd], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/nit-from-PIE-kh3nid.wav

*ḱhnid- also developed into Armenian անիծ ‎anits:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-kh3nid-to-Armenian-anits.wav

Jun 09, 2023

Nose

Nose comes from Proto-Indo-European *nh̥-s-eh₂- [nasḁ:], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/nose-from-PIE-nh2seh2.wav

*nh̥-s-eh₂- continued almost unchanged, losing the final vowel, into Punjabi ਨਾਸ naas “nostril”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-nh2seh2-to-Punjabi-naas.wav

Hindi नाक naak developed from a derived form *nas-ka:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-nh2s-to-Hindi-nak.wav
as did Romani nak:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-nh2s-to-Romani-nak.wav

Picture of a nose and mouth viewed in profile from the right-hand side, with a finger tip touching the nose. A Hindi caption above reads "Dai naak fadakna"; the middle word naak means "nose" and the whole phrase means "right nostril".
The Hindi caption reads "Dai naak fadakna"; the middle word naak means "nose" and the whole phrase means "right nostril". From https://www.onlinesayta.com/dai-naak-fadakna/ but this seems to be a broken link.

Jun 12, 2023

Now

Now comes from Old English nu, which comes (almost unchanged) from Proto-Indo-European *nu-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/now-from-PIE-nu.wav

Proto-Indo-European *nu- survived almost unchanged into Sanskrit नु nu:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-nu-to-Sanskrit-nuu.wav

Some words change very little over long timescales, implying that transmission across generations must be very robust!

Jun 13, 2023

Milla Havanka @immersfer@spore.social replied:

In Swedish, it's still "nu" 👍

Leicester Trev @Writertrev commented:

prompted me to read https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Indo-European_language.

O

Off

Off comes from Proto-Indo-European *hep-o [apó] (a recording of Modern Greek απο), something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/off-from-PIE-apo.wav
The descent of [f] from *p is a nice example of Grimm's Law.

*hep-o may have been pronounced earlier as [ħapo]:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2epo.wav

*hep-o [apó] developed into Sanskrit अप apa:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-apo-to-Sanskrit-apa.wav

Jun 14, 2023

One

One comes from Proto-Indo-European *hoi-no-s [oinos], something like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/one-from-PIE-h1oinos.wav

*hoi-no-s also developed into Albanian një:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1oinos-to-Albanian-nje.wav

An Albanian banknote bearing the text "Një Lek", meaning "One Lek".

An Albanian banknote bearing the text "Një Lek", meaning "One Lek".

Jun 15, 2023


Two other forms of *hói- are found in "eastern" Indo-European languages, *h₁ói-kos [hoikos] and *h₁ói-wos [hoiwos]. *hói-kos developed into Mittanian aika, borrowed into (non-Indo-European) Hurrian 𒀀𒄿𒅗 aika:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1oikos-to-Hurrian-aika.wav

*hói-kos also developed into [ek] in many Indian languages, e.g. Assamese এক ek:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1oikos-to-Assamese-ek.wav

*hói-wos [hoiwos] lies behind Pashto یو yau:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1oiwos-to-Pashto-yau.wav

and Ancient Greek οἶος hoios “only”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1oiwos-to-AncientGreek-hoios.wav

Jan 23, 2024


Ore

Ore comes from Proto-Indo-European *héi-es- [ħɐĭes], meaning "metal", "copper", or "iron" in various daughter languages and at various different prehistorical eras, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/ore-from-PIE-h2eies.wav

*héi-es- also developed into Sanskrit अयस् ayas:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2eies-to-Sanskrit-ayas.wav
and Persian ایخشت‎ ayox(šot)

Jun 16, 2023

Other

Other comes from Proto-Indo-European *hen-tero- [antero], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/other-from-PIE-h2entero.wav

*hen-tero- also developed into Sanskrit अन्तर antara:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2entero-to-Sanskrit-antara.wav

Latin alter:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2entero-to-Latin-alter.wav

Latvian Otrdiena “Tuesday” i.e. “other (i.e. second) day”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2entero-to-Latvian-Otrdiena.wav

Old English ōþer (other) also meant "second".

Jun 19, 2023

Otter

Otter comes from Proto-Indo-European *ud-r-o-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/otter-from-PIE-udro.wav

The stem of *ud-r-o-, *ud-, is derived from *wed-, "water":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ud-from-PIE-wed.wav

*ud-r-o- also developed into Sanskrit उद्र udra:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-udro-to-Sanskrit-udra.wav

and almost identically into Lithuanian udra:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-udro-to-Lithuanian-udra.wav

Cf. Latin lutra, Greek hydra

An otter lifts it head from the water, face-on to the viewer and mouth open. The heading, "Ūdra", means "otter" in Lithuanian. Source: https://www.15min.lt/tema/udra-5465
An otter lifts it head from the water, face-on to the viewer and mouth open. The heading, "Ūdra", means "otter" in Lithuanian. Source: https://www.15min.lt/tema/udra-5465

Jun 21, 2023

Johan Schalin, PhD (@iohannan@lingo.lol) commented:

Further reading on the different derivatives of this root: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/277258363_Germanskt_wator_'vatten'_namnet_Vattern_och_fornsvenskt_vaetur_publisher's_offprint

Out

Out comes from Proto-Indo-European *ūd ([u:d], though this simulation is not very long, more like [ud]), something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/out-from-PIE-ud.wav

*ūd also developed into the Classical Persian prefix ز-‎ zu-:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ud-to-ClassicalPersian-zu.wav

The simulation involves a purely acoustic version of metathesis from [uz] to [zu], via a kind of [u]-colored [z] along the way.

Jun 22, 2023

Oven

Oven comes from Proto-Indo-European *hup-no, from *hukʷ- [ħukʷ], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/oven-from-PIE-h2ukw.wav

*hukʷ- also developed into the Sanskrit उखा ukha:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2ukw-to-Sanskrit-ukha.wav

In those early times, the word simply refers to some kind of cooking pot.

Old Armenian ակութ akutʿ, Ancient Greek ἰπνός ipnós are from the same root.

A modern black metal cooking pan, with the Sanskrit word "ukha" above. Cropped from https://www.facebook.com/SanskritKaUday/photos/a.359774734578692/551581458731351/
A modern black metal cooking pan, with the Sanskrit word "ukha" above. Cropped from https://www.facebook.com/SanskritKaUday/photos/a.359774734578692/551581458731351/

Jun 23, 2023

Over

Over comes from Proto-Indo-European *huper- [hʉpeɾ] (the comparative form of *hupo “up”), something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/over-from-PIE-huper.wav

*huper- also developed into Sanskrit उपरि upari:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-huper-to-Sanskrit-upari.wav

and Persian ابر abar:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-huper-to-Persian-abar.wav

as well as Ancient Greek ὑπέρ (hyper) and Latin super.

Jun 27, 2023

Owe, own

Owe and own come from Proto-Indo-European *(he)-hoik- [ɐħɑik̟ʲ], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/owe-from-PIE-h2eh2oik.wav
🔈eastern-origins/own-from-PIE-h2eh2oik.wav
(The second vowel should probably be more rounded.)

The related form *he-hiḱ- [ɐħik̟ʲ] developed into Sanskrit ईष्टे ishte:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2ik-to-Sanskrit-iishte.wav
Jun 28, 2023

Ox

Ox come from Proto-Indo-European *Huksen [ɦuksɘn], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/ox-from-PIE-Huksen.wav
The initial *H is debated, but my simulation has an [ɦ] anyway, so I've just left it like that.

*Huksen also developed into Sanskrit उक्षन् ukshan:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-Huksen-to-Sanskrit-ukSan.wav

 A black temple bull resting on the ground, in Udipi, India. From https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_sacred_Udipi_temple_Muth_bull(24-1-08)Udipi(India).JPG
A black temple bull resting on the ground, in Udipi, India. From https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:A_sacred_Udipi_temple_Muth_bull(24-1-08)Udipi(India).JPG

Jun 29, 2023

P

Finding a path

Find and path both come from Proto-Indo-European *pent-/*pont-, by different routes.

Find is inherited from *pént-e-, and shows the f < *p development expected by Grimm's Law (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/find-from-PIE-pente.wav

Path was borrowed in Proto-Germanic from *patha, from some (uncertain) Iranian language:
🔈eastern-origins/path-from-ProtoGermanic-patha.wav

Proto-Germanic and Iranian *patha "path" comes from Proto-Indo-European *pont-eh₁-s [ponte:s]:
🔈eastern-origins/Iranian-patha-from-PIE-ponteh1s.wav
*pont-eh₁-s also developed into Vedic Sanskrit पन्थासो panthaso:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-ponteh1s-to-Sanskrit-panthaaso.wav

which survives as a learned word in various forms in modern Indic languages, e.g. Bengali পন্থা pontha:
🔈eastern-origins/Sanskrit-panthaa-to-Bengali-pontha.wav

 Imaginative painting in which a person stands with their back to the viewer on a brown road that stretches out into the distance, where it is seen to branch many times, some branches joining together again, some taking circular side-tracks. The heading in Devanagari script, जीवन पथ "jeevan path", means "path of life".
Imaginative painting in which a person stands before a twisting and branching path. The heading in Devanagari script, जीवन पथ "jeevan path", means "path of life" in Hindi. Screenshot portion of a blog post, https://lekhaniji.blogspot.com/2020/06/blog-post_92.html. Original image source is unknown.

Jun 30, 2023

Q

Queen

Queen comes from Proto-Indo-European *gwen-, something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/queen-from-PIE-gwen.wav

In many "eastern" I-E languages, *g often develops into [ʤ], later [ʒ] then [z], e.g. Sanskrit ग्ना gnaa  “goddess”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwen-to-Sanskrit-gnaa.wav

Balochi  جن jan “woman”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwen-to-Balochi-jan.wav

Bosnian žena “woman”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwen-to-Bosnian-Zena.wav

Persian زن zan “woman”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwen-to-Persian-zan.wav

Still from an Iranian movie entitled "Zan ha fereshteh", Women are Angels.
Still from an Iranian movie entitled "Zan ha fereshteh", Women are Angels. (Source: movie information listing at cinema site https://www.sourehcinema.com/Title/Title.aspx?id=138605290018)

Jul 03, 2023

Quell, kill

Quell and kill come from Proto-Indo-European *gʷelh₁- [gwele̥], something like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/quell-from-PIE-gwelh1.wav

*gʷelh₁- also developed into Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian žaoka “sting, barb”
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwelh1-to-Bosnian-Zaoka.wav

The same root *gʷelh₁- developed into Ancient Greek βέλεμνον belemnon, “javelin, dart”, which gives its name to fossil belemnites:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwelh1-to-AncientGreek-belemn.wav

Poster for the 1973 movie "The Sting", listed on Serbian TV channel "Aladin" with the Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian translated title "Žaoka"
Photograph of a fossil belemnite, Hibolites semisulcatus

Above: Poster for the 1973 movie "The Sting", listed on Serbian TV channel "Aladin" with the Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian translated title "Žaoka". Cropped screenshot from https://tv.aladin.info/4605-zaoka
Below: Photograph of a fossil belemnite, Hibolites semisulcatus, from the Staatliches Museum für Naturkunde Stuttgart. Image from https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/99/Hibolites_semisulcatus.JPG Attribution: Ghedoghedo, CC BY-SA 3.0 <https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>, via Wikimedia Commons

Jul 04, 2023

Quern

Quern come from Proto-Indo-European *gʷerh₂-nu-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/quern-from-PIE-gwerh2n.wav

*gʷerh₂- also developed into Balochi گران graan “heavy”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwerh2n-to-Balochi-gran.wav

Punjabi ਗੁਰ gur (“guru”), as in ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ gurdwara “gateway to the gurus” (= Sikh temple):
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwerh2-to-Punjabi-gur.wav

Ancient Greek βάρος baros “weight” (as in “barometer”, from “bar”, the unit of pressure, and “baritone”):
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gweh2rus-to-AncientGreek-baros.wav

Scottish Gaelic brà “quern”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwreh2-to-Gaelic-bra.wav

One of many quern stones found at the Clachtoll broch archaeological site, Assynt, Sutherland, west coast of Scotland.

One of many quern stones found at the Clachtoll broch archaeological site, Assynt, Sutherland, west coast of Scotland. Image source: Shared by Zana B in a Tripadvisor review https://www.tripadvisor.co.uk/Attraction_Review-g319813-d4992165-Reviews-Clachtoll_Broch-Lochinver_Caithness_and_Sutherland_Scottish_Highlands_Scotland.html

Jul 05, 2023

More on quern: a survival of Proto-Indo-European *h₂ in Pashto?

As posted before, quern comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʷerh₂-nu-.

*gʷerh₂- also developed into [gur] in Pashto and Punjabi:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-gwerh2-to-Punjabi-gur.wav

This recording of Pashto ګور [gu:rħ] ends in a voiceless pharyngeal fricative:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Heston-Pashto-gurH-heavy.wav

I don't know if this is normal, but Iranian languages do preserve some PIE "laryngeals" as consonants.

(From https://dsal.uchicago.edu/cgi-bin/app/heston_query.py?qs=%DA%AB%D9%88%D8%B1&searchhws=yes#)

Jul 18, 2023

I've used the recording of Pashto ګور [gu:rħ], with its final pharyngeal fricative, to recompute the simulation of *gʷerh₂- at https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-gwerh2.wav and the trajectories to Punjabi ਗੁਰ gur, Ancient Greek βάρος baros, and Latin gravis that come from it.

Nov 28, 2023

Quick

In the phrase "the quick and the dead", quick means "alive". It comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʷi-gʷh₃-(u)ó-, like this:
🔈eastern-origins/quick-from-PIE-gwigwh3o.wav

*gʷi-gʷh₃-(u)ó- also developed into Persian جیوه jiive “quicksilver, mercury”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwigwh3o.wav

and Lithuanian gyvo “alive”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwigwh3o-to-Lithuanian-gyvo.wav

Variant form *gʷiéh₃-uo- developed into Modern Greek ζώο zo-o “animal”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gwieh3uo-to-Greek-zooo.wav

A chemistry beaker containing mercury (quicksilver), superimposed with the Persian word jiive, mercury.
A chemistry beaker containing mercury (quicksilver), superimposed with the Persian word jiive, mercury. From an Iranian chemistry website, jahaneshimi.com

Jul 06, 2023

Quoth

The archaic word quoth, meaning "said", comes from Proto-Indo-European *gʷet-, like this (listen):
🔈eastern-origins/quoth-from-PIE-gweT.wav

"Quote" looks similar, but is unrelated. The related word "bequeath" also comes from *gʷet- :
🔈eastern-origins/bequeath-from-PIE-gweT.wav

*gʷet- (or a similar-but-not-identical form, *gʷed-) also developed into Sanskrit गदति gad(ati), "to speak":
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-gweT-to-Sanskrit-gad.wav

Jul 07, 2023

R

Reckless, reckon

Reck(less) and reckon come from Proto-Indo-European *hrohǵ eh₂ [ɐ̥ro:gɐħ] “care”, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/reckless-from-PIE-h2roh1geh2.wav
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/reckon-from-PIE-h2roh1geh2.wav
*hrohǵ eh₂ also developed into Doric Greek ἀρωγά aroga:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2roh1geh2-to-DoricGreek-aroga.wav

According to Beekes, *hrohǵ -eh₂- is related to *hrēǵ- [ŏ̥reg], from which comes Persian راست rast “straight, right”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3reg-to-Persian-raast.wav

The English dialect phrase "chinny reckon", meaning "I don't think that's right", is a fossilized remnant of Old and Middle English iċ ne recce (I don't reckon), as in e.g. A Passion of St Margaret, l. 222 "for ic ne recce þise leasere þrowunge" (I don't care about this false suffering).

Here's an audio simulation:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/chinny-reckon-from-ic-ne-recce.wav
The modern phrase is briefly but correctly explained in a section of this podcast about West Country dialect:
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2MaLl191cOE&t=184s

Animation gif of English TV sports presenter Jimmy Hill looking a little sceptical while stroking his chin

Jul 14, 2023

Red

Red comes from Proto-Indo-European *hroudʰ- [hroʊdʱ], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/red-from-PIE-h1roudh.wav

*hroudʰ- also developed into Sanskrit रुधिर rudhira "blood":
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1roudh-to-Sanskrit-rudhira.wav

Ancient Greek ἐρυθρός ‎eruthrós, with *h₁ > [e]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1roudh-to-AncientGreek-eruthros.wav

Initial [h] is still frequently heard in Latvian ruds (from variant *hreudʰ-):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1reudh-to-Latvian-ruds.wav


Medical illustration of red blood cells (greatly magnified) in a cutaway of a blood vessel. A heading reads "Blood" (in English), with the Hindi and Sanskrit word "rudhira", meaning blood or blood-red, in Devanagari letters.
Medical illustration of red blood cells (greatly magnified) in a cutaway of a blood vessel. A heading reads "Blood" (in English), with the Hindi and Sanskrit word "rudhira", meaning blood or blood-red, in Devanagari letters. From a YouTube image https://i.ytimg.com/vi/5gwmxWWhv74/maxresdefault.jpg

Jul 17, 2023

(Older post)

Laryngeals in Lithuanian? Here's an example of raudona from  Proto-Indo-European *hreudh-. Listen to this first syllable:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/RUBER-ENLT014-raudona-hreud.wav Downloaded from https://50languages.com/phrasebook/lesson/en/lt/14/ and converted to .wav. Unlike my other demos, these have not been manipulated at all.


Something very similar in Latvian ruds (also meaning red, also from Proto-Indo-European *h₁reudh-), which is rather like [hruds]; listen 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/Latvian-ruds-M.wav

Nov 24, 2020

It seems unlikely that the initial [h] in such examples is actually a reflex of *h₁; it is not consistently present in this Lithuanian word and could well just be aerodynamic effect of delayed voicing of the initial [r]. But it nicely exemplifies what the *hr in *hreudh- might have sounded like.

Here are *hreudh- red > Ancient Greek ἐρυθ(ρός)

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h1rewdh-to-Greek-eruth.wav

*hstér star > Ancient Greek ἀστήρ
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2ster-to-Ancient-Greek-aster.wav

*hligos > Ancient Greek ὀλίγος

🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h3ligos-to-Ancient-Greek-oligos.wav

Jun 29, 2022

Reek

Reek comes from Proto-Indo-European *hreug- [ɘ̥rɛʊg] "belch", like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/reek-from-PIE-h1reug.wav

*hreug- also developed into Persian اروغ arog:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1reug-to-Persian-arogh.wav

The raug- part of Lithuanian raugėti:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1reug-to-Lithuanian-raugeti.wav

and Ancient Greek ἐρεύγομαι ‎ereúgomai, with initial *h₁ pronounced as the vowel [e]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1reug-to-AncientGreek-ereugomai.wav

A Persian web page about herbal medicine. A white man in a shirt and tie, with a puffed-out mouth with closed lips pats his stomach. The caption translates as "Burping: why do we burp and how can it be treated?" The Persian word "arogh", meaning "burp", is highlighted. A cartoonish figure, inset in the foreground, has a wide open mouth from which gaseous bubbles are emerging.

Image: A Persian web page about herbal medicine. The caption translates as "Burping: why do we burp and how can it be treated?" The Persian word "arogh", meaning "burp", is highlighted. Source: https://fa.parsiteb.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/arogh.jpg

Jul 19, 2023

Rib

Rib comes from Proto-Indo-European *hrebʰ- [hreɛbʱ], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/rib-from-PIE-h1rebh.wav

*hrebʰ- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian rebro:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1rebh-to-Bosnian-rebro.wav

and Ancient Greek ἐρέφω erepho “roof”, with initial *h₁ pronounced as the vowel [e]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1rebh-to-AncientGreek-erepho.wav

Book cover of "Adamovo Rebro" (Adam's Rib) by Branka Baretić Milenković. The illustration shows a silhouette of a hunched-up human figure, head bent down to one knee, with the wording of the title superimposed in bold red letters.
Book cover of "Adamovo Rebro" (Adam's Rib) by Branka Baretić Milenković, made into a poster for a reading at Narodna Biblioteka "Ilija M. Petrović", Požarevac, Serbia. Source: https://www.bibliotekapo.org/

Jul 20, 2023


Right

Right comes from Proto-Indo-European *hreǵ-to- [ŏ̥regtʰo], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/right-from-PIE-h3regto.wav

The related form *hrēǵ-hón- developed into Sanskrit राजन् raajan “king, ruler”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3regh3on-to-Sanskrit-raajan.wav

*hrēǵ- developed into Persian راست rast “right”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3reg-to-Persian-raast.wav
and Ancient Greek ὀρέγω ‎orego “reach out”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h3reg-to-AncientGreek-orego.wav

Diagram of the "Right Hand Rule" in Physics, from a Persian educational website. The word for "right", raast, is circled in the heading. The drawing is of a human right hand with the thumb extended upwards, the index finger pointing leftwards, and the middle finger pointing as if out of the picture, towards the viewer.
Diagram of the "Right Hand Rule" in Physics, from a Persian educational website. The word for "right", raast, is circled. Source: https://static.cdn.asset.aparat.com/avt/16032470-1490-b__207276863.jpg

Gold coin of the Ancient British king Tasciovanos, from a numismatic website. The inscription reads TASCI (short for Tasciovanos) RICON.

Bonus picture: Gold coin of the Ancient British king Tasciovanos, from a numismatic website. The inscription reads TASCI (short for Tasciovanos) RICON. On some examples of this coin, the spelling of the second word is more like RIGON. RICON or RIGON meant "king" in Ancient British, and is a cognate of Sanskrit राजन् raajan, Latin rex, and German Reich, which are also descendants from *h₃rēǵ-. This coin is one of the oldest written texts in British, the Celtic language that later involved into Welsh.

Jul 31, 2023

Root

Root comes from Proto-Indo-European *urd-i-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/root-from-PIE-urdi.wav

"Wort", as in e.g. "St John's wort", "ragwort", and German "Wurzel", as in "mangelwurzel" are also from this Indo-European root. (Bad pun intended.)

The related form *ured- developed into Persian ریشه risheh:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ured-to-Persian-risheh.wav

Root system at the base of a shrub; the earth has been removed to make the roots visible. The headline ریشه گیاه چیست؟ means "what is the root of a plant?" The rightmost word, "risheh", meaning root, is highlighted in blue.
Root system at the base of a shrub. The headline ریشه گیاه چیست؟ means "what is the root of a plant?" The rightmost word, "risheh", meaning root, is highlighted in blue. From an Iranian educational website, https://youc.ir/what-is-the-root-of-a-plant-called/

Aug 01, 2023

Rush

Rush (reed) comes from Proto-Indo-European *resg, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/rush-from-PIE-resg.wav

*resg- developed into Sanskrit रज्जु rajju “rope”
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-resg-to-Sanskrit-rajju.wav

A Sanskrit text by Baudhayana (800 BC, 500 years before #Pythagoras was born) states:

दीर्घचतुरश्रस्याक्ष्णया रज्जु: पार्श्र्वमानी तिर्यग् मानी च यत् पृथग् भूते कुरूतस्तदुभयं करोति ॥

"A rope (rájju, रज्जु) stretched along the length of the diagonal produces an area which the vertical and horizontal sides make together."

Sanskrit manuscript by the Indian mathematician Baudhayana (800 BC) presenting "Pythagoras' Theorem"
Sanskrit manuscript by the Indian mathematician Baudhayana (800 BC) presenting "Pythagoras' Theorem" long before Pythagoras was born. Image source: https://pbs.twimg.com/media/E67PjYOXoAg6HAK.jpg

Aug 02, 2023

S

Salt

Salt comes from Proto-Indo-European *shl-os [salos], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/salt-from-PIE-sh2los.wav

*shl-os developed into Bosnian so:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sh2los-to-Bosnian-so.wav
(The same outcome in Serbian but not Croatian, which has a final -l, sol, as on the lower right-hand side of the image.)

The variant form *sehl-s developed into Latvian sāls:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-seh2ls-to-Latvian-sals.wav
and Ancient Greek ἅλς [hals]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-seh2ls-to-AncientGreek-hals.wav


A box of cooking salt, from a Bosnian salt company in Tuzla, Bosnia and Hercegovina.
A box of cooking salt, from a Bosnian salt company in Tuzla, Bosnia and Hercegovina. Image source https://solana.ba/kuhinjska-varena-so/

Aug 03, 2023

Salve

Salve comes from Proto-Indo-European *solp-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/salve-from-PIE-solp.wav

The related form *selp- developed into Ossetian царв tsarv “clarified butter”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-selp-to-Ossetian-tsarv.wav

The label on this photograph says "Iron Tsarv" in cyrillic letters. "Iron" (pronounced Ih-ron, like "Iran" but with a rounded vowel in the second syllable), means "Ossetian", and is cognate with "Iran".

Photograph of a jar of clarified butter, with the label "Iron Tsarv" in cyrillic letters. The jar is clear glass, so that the yellow butter inside is visible.

Photograph of a jar of clarified butter, with the label "Iron Tsarv" in cyrillic letters. The jar is clear glass, so that the yellow butter inside is visible. From a Russian bakery website, www.ozon.ru

Sep 01, 2023

Same

Same comes from Proto-Indo-European *somH-o- [somo], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/same-from-PIE-somo.wav

The same root developed into Persian هم ham, meaning “also”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-somo-to-Persian-ham.wav

Sep 04, 2023

Bonus simulation: a UK male pronunciation of same going back to the US female (somewhat more archaic) pronunciation and then all the way back to PIE *somH-o, as before.

🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sameUK-from-PIE-somo.wav
Sep 05, 2023

Sang

"Sang" comes from Proto-Indo-European *songʷʰ-o-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sang-from-PIE-songwh.wav

*songʷʰ-o- is derived from *sengʷʰ-e- “sing”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-songwh-from-PIE-sengwh.wav

*sengʷʰ-e- developed into Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai “to narrate”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sengwh-to-Prakrit-saMghai.wav
(Prakrit languages were vernaculars in India, distinct from Sanskrit, from c. 3rd century BCE to 8th century CE.)

Sep 04, 2023

Sat, set, sit, seat

Sat comes from Proto-Indo-European *sod-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sat-from-PIE-sod.wav

*sod- is derived from *sed- "sit":
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sod-from-PIE-sed.wav

*sed- developed into Sanskrit  सीदति sid(ati):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sed-to-Sanskrit-siidati.wav

Set and sit also come from *sed-:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/set-from-PIE-sed.wav
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sit-from-PIE-sed.wav

Sep 08, 2023

An earlier post:

Following on from "nest", sit comes from Proto-Indo-European *sed, something like:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sit-from-PIE-sed.wav

Set also comes from *sed-, something like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/set-from-PIE-sed.wav

Seat comes from *sed-i-, something like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/seat-from-PIE-sedi.wav
*sed also developed into Sanskrit सीदति sidati:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sed-to-Sanskrit-siidati.wav
Jun 06, 2023

Say

Say comes from Proto-Indo-European *sokʷ-eie (here truncated to *sokʷ-e):
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/say-from-PIE-sokwe.wav
*sokʷ-e(ie) is derived from *sekʷ-:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sokwe-from-PIE-sekwe.wav

*sekʷ- developed into Sanskrit  सच् sac-:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sekwe-to-Sanskrit-sac.wav

For [kʷ] in word-final position, here's Tashlhit Berber [tχəznækʷ]:
https://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/txznakkw.wav
Thinking of those in the Morocco earthquake.

Sep 11, 2023

Sear, sere

Sear comes from Proto-Indo-European *hsous- [ɑ̥sous]:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sear-from-PIE-h2sous.wav
*hsous- also developed into Persian خشک hoshk “dry”:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2sous-to-Persian-xoSk.wav
... and Latvian sauss “dry”:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2sous-to-Latvian-sauss.wav
Slices of various dried fruits, from the website of Iranian retailer barjil.com. A horizontal line to each type of fruit gives its name in Persian; each of the names contains the Persian word "hoshk", meaning "dried". Cropped and scaled from original source: https://www.barjil.com/wp-content/uploads/2021/03/sour-dried-fruits-mix-barjil-430-4.webp
Slices of various dried fruits, from the website of Iranian retailer barjil.com. A horizontal line to each type of fruit gives its name in Persian; each of the names contains the Persian word خشک "hoshk", meaning "dried".

Sep 13, 2023

Seed

Seed comes from Proto-Indo-European *seh-to- [se:to], like this (listen):
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/seed-from-PIE-seh1to.wav
Its stem *seh₁- [se:], "to sow", also developed into Slovenian sejati:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-seh1-to-Slovenian-sejati.wav
... and Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian sijati:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-seh1-to-BCS-sijati.wav
A person's hand is placing a row of small red beans into a shallow trench in the soil of a garden. The heading "Kada i kako sijati grah?" means "When and how to sow beans?" in Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian.
A person's hand is placing a row of small red beans into a shallow trench in the soil of a garden. The heading "Kada i kako sijati grah?" means "When and how to sow beans?" in Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian.


Sep 14, 2023

Sell

Sell comes from Proto-Indo-European *solh-éie- ([soleje] simulated here using French "soleil"!), like this (listen):
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sell-from-PIE-solh1eie.wav
The related form *sl̥h₁- or *selh₁-possibly (debatably) developed into the initial [sl] cluster of Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian slati “to send”. If so, like this:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-slh1-to-BCS-slati.wav
Sep 15, 2023

Seven

Seven comes from Proto-Indo-European *septm, like this (listen):
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/seven-from-PIE-septm.wav

*septm also developed into Sanskrit सप्तन् saptan:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-septm-to-Sanskrit-saptan.wav
and Persian هفت haft:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-septm-to-Persian-haft.wav

A table of "haft seen" i.e. "seven good things", traditionally made for Persian New Year.
A table of "haft seen" i.e. "seven good things", traditionally made for Persian New Year. Picture from the US White House.

Sep 18, 2023

Sew

Sew comes from Proto-Indo-European *syuh₁- [sju:], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sew-from-PIE-siuh1.wav

*syuh₁- developed into Sanskrit सीव्यति sivyati:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-siuh1-to-Sanskrit-siivyati.wav
from which comes Urdu سینا siina:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-siuh1-to-Urdu-siina.wav

*syuh₁- also developed into Lithuanian siūti:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-siuh1-to-Lithuanian-siuti.wav

To sow seeds is from another root, for another day ...

A stand with four or more brightly patterned fabric-covered "eggs".  Cropped from a website giving instructions about how "to sew Easter eggs"; the heading, in Lithuanian, is "Siūti velykiniai kiaušiniai". "Siūti" means "to sew".
Extract cropped from a website giving instructions about how "to sew Easter eggs"; the heading, in Lithuanian, is "Siūti velykiniai kiaušiniai". "Siūti" means "to sew". Picture is a stand with four or more brightly patterned fabric-covered "eggs". Source: https://www.gami.lt/siuti-velykiniai-kiausiniai

Sep 19, 2023

Shade

The vocalic color of the laryngeals is perhaps clearest in Ancient Greek, e.g. *skh-tu- > σκότος (cognate with shade), *hbhruHs > ὀφρῦς "brow". Since they also occasionally have voiceless fricative-like reflexes, I tolerate the idea that they may have sometimes been voiceless vocoids.

Jun 29, 2022

Shear

Shear comes from Proto-Indo-European *s-ker-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/shear-from-PIE-sker.wav

Another form of *s-ker, *ker-mn, developed into Persian چرم charm "leather":
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kermn-to-Persian-charm.wav

*ker-p developed into Punjabi ਕਿਰਪਾਨ kirpaan, the Sikh dagger:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kerp-to-Punjabi-kirpaan.wav

Harrow (see above) is also from *ker-p- :
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/harrow-from-PIE-kerp.wav
as is harvest:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/harvest-from-PIE-kerp.wav

A harrow: a piece of agricultural equipment drawn behind a tractor and used to scrape across and break up the soil after ploughing.
A harrow: a piece of agricultural equipment drawn behind a tractor and used to scrape across and break up the soil after ploughing. Photo from Wikipedia.

Sep 22, 2023

Shoot

Shoot (i.e. to propel) comes from Proto-Indo-European *s-keud-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/shoot-from-PIE-skeud.wav

The derived form *s-kud-to-s, developed into Persian  چست chost “quick”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-skudt-to-Persian-chost.wav

The root *keud- also lies behind Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian kidati, "to tear/break":
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-keud-to-BCMS-kidati.wav

Sep 25, 2023

Shove

Shove comes from Proto-Indo-European *s-keubʰ-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/shove-from-PIE-skoub.wav

The related or variant form *ks(e)ubʰ- developed into Persian  آشوب aashub “chaos”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ksub-to-Persian-aashub.wav


Poster for Iranian movie "Ashoob". In the background, 15 people in c. 1930's European-style dress, with three central characters in the middle-foreground. Below, the title in large Persian letters, and in smaller Roman letters: "Ashoob". To the lower left of the title, a singing bird (similar to a European Robin or Redstart) portrayed side-on, with the upper part of a line of music to its left, behind it.
Poster for Iranian movie "Ashoob". Image from an online review in the Iranian arts magazine https://fardmag.ir/.

Sep 28, 2023

Show

Show comes from Proto-Indo-European *s-keuh₁- [skou], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/show-from-PIE-skouh1.wav

The related (unprefixed) form *kouh₁-is  [ko:his]  developed into Marathi कवि kavi “poet” :
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kouh1is-to-Marathi-kavi.wav

*kouh₁-  also developed into Ancient Greek κοέ-ω koe(o) “be aware of”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-kouh1-to-AncientGreek-koe.wav

Sep 29, 2023

Sister

Sister comes from Proto-Indo-European *swesor, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sister-from-PIE-swesor.wav

*swesor also developed into Sanskrit स्वसृ svasr:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-swesor-to-Sanskrit-svasr.wav

... and Persian خواهر‎ khohar:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-swesor-to-Persian-xohar.wav

Drawing of two sisters hugging in celebration of World Sister's Day, "Roz Khahar", from Shaboone magazine, Iran.
Drawing of two sisters in celebration of World Sister's Day, "Roz Khahar", from Shaboone magazine, Iran. For the etymology of roz or ruz, "day", see light, above.

Oct 03, 2023

Six

English six comes ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *kswek̂s, via [seks].
Listen: 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/six-from-PIE-ksweks.wav

Strictly speaking, it should pass through Proto-Germanic *sehs [sexs]; my version of that came out a bit growly so maybe that's one for another day ...

Dec 7, 2018

English six comes from Proto-Indo-European *sweḱs, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/six-from-PIE-sweks.wav

(This improves on/corrects a version I put online before at https://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/ancient-sounds-database.html - which wasn't quite right.)

The same root developed into Southern Pashto  شپږ [ʃpaʐ], something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sweks-to-Pashto-SpaZ.wav

(Indebted to language consultant recorded by Ali Hussain for the Southern Pashto recording.)

In Persian, the root comes out as [ʃeʃ] or [ʃiʃ]:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sweks-to-Persian-shesh-shish.wav

Dec 15, 2022

Small

Small hasn't changed a lot over the centuries. It comes from Proto-Indo-European *smol (really!) like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/small-from-PIE-smol.wav

In Slavic it lost the initial *s-, so that in Bosnian and its sister languages it developed into malo:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-smol-to-Bosnian-malo.wav

Oct 04, 2023

Smile, smirk

Smile and smirk both come from Proto-Indo-European *smei-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/smile-from-PIE-smey.wav
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/smirk-from-PIE-smey.wav

*smei also developed into Sanskrit स्मयते smayate:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-smey-to-Sanskrit-smayate.wav
and (independently but very similarly) into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian smejati:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-smey-to-BCMS-smejati.wav

Cover of the novel "Smejati se i plakati" (Smile and Cry), by Francois Weyergans (Fransoa Vejergans)
Cover of the novel "Smejati se i plakati" (Smile and Cry), by Francois Weyergans (Fransoa Vejergans). Image source: online book shop in Serbia, https://laguna.rs/n638_knjiga_smejati_se_i_plakati_laguna.html

Oct 05, 2023

Smoke

Smoke comes from Proto-Indo-European *smeugh-e [smoʊg̟ʱe], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/smoke-from-PIE-smoughe.wav

*smeugh-e also developed into Armenian մուխ mukh:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-smoughe-to-Armenian-mux.wav

Phonetics bonus: Norwegian smog (a loan-word, from English I suppose) shows anti-coarticulation — the final [g̟ʲ] is quite palatalized even though the preceding vowel is back:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Norwegian-smog-anticoarticulation.wav

Oct 09, 2023

Snow

Snow comes from Proto-Indo-European *snéigʷʰ-, perhaps like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/snow-from-PIE-sneigh.wav
(based upon the Serbian cognate снег and thus ignoring the final [ʷʰ])

*snéigʷʰ- also developed into Sanskrit स्नेह sneha “moisture, oiliness”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sneigh-to-Sanskrit-sneha.wav

*snéigʷʰ- also developed into Lithuanian sniegas:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sneigwh-to-Lithuanian-sniegas.wav

Oct 10, 2023

Son

Son comes from Proto-Indo-European *suh₁-nus [su:nus], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/son-from-PIE-suHnus.wav

*suh₁-nus also developed into Sanskrit सूनु sunu:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suHnus-to-Sanskrit-suunu.wav

Extract from Wikipedia entry for Sanskrit sunu

Extract from Wiktionary entry for Sanskrit sunu


*suh₁-nus continues hardly changed in Lithuanian sūnus; this simulation warps one token of Lithuanian sūnus (used as a proxy for *suh₁-nus) into another :
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suHnus-to-Lithuanian-sunus.wav

Oct 11, 2023

Soot

Soot is an interesting word. It comes from Proto-Indo-European *so:d-o-, a derived form of *sed- "sit", i.e. "that which settles", perhaps like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/soot-from-PIE-sodo.wav

*so:d-o- also developed into Ukrainian сажа sazha:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sodo-to-Ukrainian-sazha.wav

"Sazha belaya", white soot, which is sold in Ukraine for agricultural use. From https://himfarminvest.com.ua/sazha-belaya

Oct 12, 2023

Sore, sorry

Sore and sorry come from Proto-Indo-European *shei-ro- [sairo], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sore-from-PIE-sh2eiro.wav
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sorry-from-PIE-sh2eiro.wav

*shei-ro- is a form of *shei- [sai] “afflict, bind”, which developed into Latvian saiklis “string, band, connection”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sh2ei-to-Latvian-saiklis.wav
and Ossetian хид khid “bridge” → Hungarian híd
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sh2ei-to-Ossetian-khid.wav

Oct 13, 2023

Sorrow

Last week I posted about "sore" and "sorry". Sorrow comes from a different Proto-Indo-European word, *surgʰ-eh₂- [surgʱa], like this (listen):
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sorrow-from-PIE-surgeh2.wav

*surgʰ-eh₂- also developed into the first part of Sanskrit सूर्क्षति surkshati “to worry”:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-surgeh2-to-Sanskrit-surkshati.wav
and archaic Bulgarian срага sraga “misfortune”:
🔈https://ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-surgeh2-to-ArchaicBulgarian-sraga.wav

Oct 17, 2023

Sour

Sour comes from Proto-Indo-European *súh₁-ro- [su:ro], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sour-from-PIE-suh1ro.wav

*súh₁-ro- also developed into Siraiki شور shor "salty":
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suh1ro-to-Siraiki-shor.wav
(Siraiki is an Iranian language spoken in Pakistan.)

Also Lithuanian sūris “cheese” :
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suh1ro-to-Lithuanian-suris.wav
and Bosnian sir “cheese”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suh1ro-to-Bosnian-sir.wav

Detail from a packet of pretzel sticks, from the Iranian online store, shahrvand.ir. The blue lettering on the packet reads "چوب شور", chub shur, literally "salty sticks".
Detail from a packet of pretzel sticks, from the Iranian online store, shahrvand.ir. The blue lettering on the packet reads "چوب شور", chub shur, literally "salty sticks".

Oct 23, 2023

Sow, swine

Sow comes from Proto-Indo-European *suh₁- (pronounced [su:], earlier [su:h]) like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sow-from-PIE-suH.wav

The plural swine is from suh₁-īno- [su:hi:no]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/swine-from-PIE-suHino.wav

The derived form *suh₁-kas developed into Balochi ہوک‎ huuk “pig”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suHka-to-Balochi-huuk.wav

*suh₁- also developed into Ancient Greek ὗς [hy:s] “pig”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suh1-to-AncientGreek-hus.wav

Oct 30, 2023

Sow

Sow (e.g. sow seeds) comes from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁- [se:] like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sow-from-PIE-seh1.wav

*seh₁- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian sijati:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-seh1-to-BCS-sijati.wav

A person's hand is placing a row of small red beans into a shallow trench in the soil of a garden. The heading "Kada i kako sijati grah?" means "When and how to sow beans?" in Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian.
The heading in this image, "Kada i kako sijati grah?", means "When and how to sow beans?" in Bosnian-Croatian-Montenegrin-Serbian.

Oct 31, 2023

Spare

Spare (meaning “extra”) comes from Proto-Indo-European *sph̥₁-ro- [spɘro] like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/spare-from-PIE-sph1ro.wav

*sph̥₁-ro- also developed into Sanskrit स्फिर sphira “fat, thick”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sph1ro-to-Sanskrit-sphira.wav

The full form *speh₁-ro- [spɘ:ro] developed into Ancient Greek σπαρνός sparnós "sparse":
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-speh1ro-to-AncientGreek-sparnos.wav

Prosper is also from *speh₁-.

Nov 07, 2023

Spark

Spark (see also spring) comes from Proto-Indo-European *s-pérgʰ- [spɘrgʱ], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/spark-from-PIE-spergh.wav

*s-pérgʰ- also developed into Pashto سپرغۍ sparghay:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-spergh-to-Pashto-sparGay.wav

The related form *pérgʰ- developed into Sanskrit पर्जन्य Parjanya, Marathi Parzhanya “(god of) rainfall”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pergh-to-Marathi-ParZanya.wav

The name of Icelandic Fjörgynn, a thunder god, may be derived from *pérgʰ-, like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/Icelandic-Fjorgynn-from-PIE-pergh.wav
(N.B. the usual reconstruction is *perkʷ-)

Lithuanian Perkūnas “thunder” may also be derived from *pérgʰ-:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-pergh-to-Lithuanian-Perkunas.wav

Medieval etching of the Lithuanian pagan thunder-god Perkūnas

Medieval etching of the Lithuanian pagan thunder-god Perkūnas

Whether all these names are really from just one Proto-Indo-European stem is arguable, though. *pérgʰ- "sprinkle" seems right for Parjanya, because * > Sanskrit j, but the g in Fjörgynn fits the reconstruction *perkʷ-. The meaning of that stem is associated with wooded hillsides and oak trees (cf. Latin quercus), supposedly because oak trees get blasted by lightning. But ?

Nov 08, 2023

Spell

Spell comes from Proto-Indo-European *spel-o-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/spell-from-PIE-spelo.wav

*spel-o- also developed into Armenian առասպել arraspel “myth, legend”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-spelo-to-Armenian-arraspel.wav

Opening title from YouTube video by Armenian folk-rock band Araspel. Two figures in medieval armour standard either side of a figurative tree, above which is written "ARA - PELL" (the medial S for some reason missing).
Image from the opening title from a YouTube video of Armenian folk-rock band Araspel. Two figures in medieval armour stand either side of a figurative tree, above which is written "ARA - PELL" (the medial S for some reason missing).

Nov 10, 2023

Spew

Spew comes from Proto-Indo-European *spti̯eu̯h₁- [sptju:], like this (listen):

🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/spew-from-PIE-sptju.wav

(Not the best, because [sptj] was hard to simulate well.)

*spti̯eu̯h₁- also developed into Persian تف [tuf] “spit”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sptju-to-Persian-tuf.wav

Ancient Greek πτύω [‎ptuo] “spit out”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sptju-to-AncientGreek-ptuo.wav
 
and English “spit”, but that's for another day.

Nov 14, 2023

Spring

Spring — to move or burst out rapidly or energetically — comes from Proto-Indo-European *spré-n-gʰ-e-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/spring-from-PIE-sprenghe.wav

*spré-n-gʰ-e- is derived from *sprégʰ-:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sprenghe-from-spregh.wav

*sprégʰ- is from *s-pérgʰ- [spɘrgʱ]:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-spregh-from-spergh.wav

A variant, *s-prgʰ- developed into Pashto [sprəž] “blossom”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sprgh-to-Pashto-spraZ.wav

Jan 30, 2023

Revised and posted again on March 21, 2023 (for the Spring Equinox), with the addition of Sanskrit स्फूर्ज sphurja:

Spring comes from Proto-Indo-European *spré-n-gʰ-e-, something like this:
🔈eastern-origins/spring-from-PIE-sprenghe.wav

*spré-n-gʰ-e- is from *sprégʰ-
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sprenghe-from-spregh.wav
a variant of *s-pérgʰ-
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-spregh-from-spergh.wav

*s-prgʰ-, another variant,
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-spergh-to-sprgh.wav
developed into Sanskrit स्फूर्ज sphurja “be eager, strive after, desire”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sprgh-to-Sanskrit-sphuurja.wav
and Pashto [sprəž] “blossom”
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sprgh-to-Pashto-spraZ.wav

Perhaps.

Mar 21, 2023

Staff

Staff comes from Proto-Indo-European *sth₂-bʰo- [stɐbʰo], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/spew-from-PIE-sptju.wav

It's one of many words from the stem *steh- "stand".

*sth-bʰo- also developed into Persian ستبر [setabr] “thick, stout”
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sth2bho-to-Persian-setabr.wav

Bulgarian стобор [stobor] “picket fence, paling”:
🔈eastern-origins/PIE-sth2bho-to-Bulgarian-stobor.wav

and Lithuanian stãbas “pole, idol” :
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sth2bho-to-Lithuanian-stabas.wav

Headline on a piece about the spelling of setabr in Iranian online magazine. The text (in Persian) reads "setabr or seṭabr?"
Headline on a piece about the spelling of setabr in Iranian online magazine https://mag.noorgram.ir. The text (in Persian) reads "setabr or seṭabr?" and discusses which Arabic letter should be used to write the [t] in this word.

Nov 15, 2023

Stair

Stair comes from Proto-Indo-European *stéiǵʰ-e- "to step", like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/stair-from-PIE-steighe.wav

*stéiǵʰ-e- also developed into Sanskrit स्तिघ्नोति stighnoti:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steighe-to-Sanskrit-stighnooti.wav
Ukrainian стигнути stizhnuti:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steighe-to-Ukrainian-stignuti.wav

Bosnian dostignuti
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steighe-to-Bosnian-dostignuti.wav

and Albanian shteg “path”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steighe-to-Albanian-shteg.wav

 Hikers walking on a narrow trail through the mountains. A caption in white text, overlaid on the photograph, reads "High Scardus Trail - Shtegu Historik i Turizmit të Aventurës", which is Albanian for "Historic Adventure Tourism Trail".

Hikers walking on a narrow trail through the mountains. A caption in white text, overlaid on the photograph, reads "High Scardus Trail - Shtegu Historik i Turizmit të Aventurës", which is Albanian for "Historic Adventure Tourism Trail". From an Albanian tourism website, https://www.intoalbania.com/sq/atraksion/high-scardus-trail-shtegu-historik-i-turizmit-te-aventures/

Nov 24, 2023

Stake

Stake comes from Proto-Indo-European *s-teg-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/stake-from-PIE-steg.wav

*s-teg- is also the root of "thatch", and Sanskrit स्थगति sthagati “to cover”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steg-to-Sanskrit-sthagati.wav

Sanskrit स्थग sthaga has cognates in many S. Asian languages, e.g. Punjabi ਠੱਗ thag "cheat, rogue":
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steg-to-Punjabi-thag.wav

English "thug" is a loan from Hindi ठग ṭhag.

The roof of a reproduction Iron Age round house at the Chiltern Open Air Museum, in the process of being thatched. The roof has a conical shape made of stakes arranged in a circle and bound together at the apex. Horizontal laths are added in concentric circles, and then thatch is fixed all round the outside.
The roof of a reproduction Iron Age round house at the Chiltern Open Air Museum, in the process of being thatched. The roof has a conical shape made of stakes arranged in a circle and bound together at the apex. Horizontal laths are added in concentric circles, and then thatch is fixed all round the outside. Image source: https://coam.org.uk/museum-buckinghamshire/historic-buildings/iron-age-house/

Nov 27, 2023, 10:01

Stall

Like "staff", stall also comes from the Proto-Indo-European stem *steh₂- "stand", specifically from the form *sth-dʰlo- [stɐdʱlo], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/stall-from-PIE-sth2dhlo.wav

*sthdʰlo- also developed into Sanskrit and thence Hindi स्थल sthal “floor, raised platform, hill”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sth2dhlo-to-Hindi-sthal.wav

(This simulation omits the final -o)

 Image of mountains behind a reflective lake, with a caption in Hindi superimposed. The caption means "Hill Stations of India", and the final word sthal means hill.
Image of mountains behind a reflective lake, with a caption in Hindi superimposed. The caption means "Hill Stations of India", and the rightmost word स्थल sthal means hill. Source: https://hinditutor.in/hill-stations-of-india.

Nov 17, 2023

Star

Star comes from Proto-Indo-European *hs-tér-on- [ɐstéron], like this (listen):

🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/star-from-PIE-h2steron.wav

*hs-tér- also developed into Balochi اِستار [istar]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2ster-to-Balochi-istar.wav

Kurmanji Kurdish [astirə]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2ster-to-Kurmanji-astire.wav

Armenian աստղ [astr]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2ster-to-Armenian-astR.wav

Persian ستاره [sitare]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2ster-to-Persian-sitare.wav

Pashtoستوری [storai]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h2ster-to-Pashto-storay.wav

Astronomy picture of a star, with text, in Persian, that reads "the strangest star in the universe"
Astronomy picture of a star, with text, in Persian, that reads "the strangest star in the universe". Source: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBh-7VWuGYE

Nov 28, 2023

*h₂stér star > Ancient Greek ἀστήρ 🔈eastern-origins/PIE-h2ster-to-Ancient-Greek-aster.wav

Jun 29, 2022

Stead

Stead comes from Proto-Indo-European *sth₂-- [stɐti], like this (but I omit the final vowel; listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/stead-from-PIE-sth2t.wav

It's one of many words from the stem *steh₂- [stɐħ] "stand".

*stéh-ti- also developed into Sanskrit स्थिति sthiti “standing, residence, situation”
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steh2t-to-Sanskrit-sthiti.wav

A tumble-down "steading" or farmstead building. Made of stone, and set before some trees. Knock Steading, Tomintoul and Glenlivet, Scotland.
A tumble-down "steading" or farmstead building. Made of stone, and set before some trees. Knock Steading, Tomintoul and Glenlivet, Scotland. Source: https://www.tgdt.org.uk/digital_archive/knock-steading/

Nov 22, 2023

Steer

The verb steer comes from Proto-Indo-European *stéh₂-ur [stɐ:r] "pole", referring to a steering pole, like this:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/steer-from-PIE-stah2ur.wav
It's one of many words from the stem *steh₂- [stɐħ] "stand".

An earlier pronunciation of *stéh₂-ur was perhaps [steħʊr]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-stah2ur-from-PIE-steh2ur.wav

which developed into Persian ستون [sutuun] “column”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sth2ur-to-Persian-sutuun.wav

Two Indian columns, from the website of an Iranian 3D computer-aided design company. Text at the left reads "Indian column, 3dmax model". (3d max is the name of some 3D design software.) The middle word in Perso-Arabic script on the next line is "sutuun", the Persian word for column.
Two Indian columns, from the website of an Iranian 3D computer-aided design company. Text at the left reads "Indian column, 3dmax model". (3d max is the name of some 3D design software.) The middle word in Perso-Arabic script on the next line is "sutuun", the Persian word for column. Source: https://3dkhani.ir/

Nov 23, 2023

Summer

Summer comes from Proto-Indo-European *semh₁- [sɘmħɐ̥], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/summer-from-PIE-semh2.wav

*semh₁- also developed into Sanskrit समा samaa:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-semh2-to-Sanskrit-samaa.wav

and also developed into Armenian ամառ ‎amar:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-semh2-to-Armenian-amarr.wav

Items laid out for summer on a beach: a mat, woven basket, brim of a sun hat, and an open book. On the sand, a starfish and a clear glass empty bottle. The first word of the three-word Armenian caption reads "amar", meaning "summer".
Items laid out for summer on a beach: a mat, woven basket, brim of a sun hat, and an open book. On the sand, a starfish and a clear glass empty bottle. The first word of the three-word Armenian caption, ամառ, reads "amar", meaning "summer". Source: https://blog.skill.am/file/2019/06/blog-photo.jpg

Nov 29, 2023

Sun

Sun comes from Proto-Indo-European *séhun- [sɑʊɵn], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sun-from-PIE-seh2un.wav

*séhun- is a variant of *séhul- [sɐʊɫ]. The derived form *sóhwl̩ [sɒʊɫ] developed into Sanskrit स्वर् svar:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-soh2wl-to-Sanskrit-svar.wav

Urdu سورج suraj:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-soh2wl-to-Urdu-suraj.wav

and Persian خور khor “east” (e.g. Khorasan Province):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-soh2wl-to-Persian-xor.wav

The sun rises on the mountainous horizon, tinging the clouds with orange and pink. The rightmost word in the Urdu caption splashed over the image is "suraj", sun.
The rightmost word in the Urdu caption splashed over this image is سورج suraj. From a Pakistan news website, https://javedch.com/

Dec 04, 2023

Swear

See also "answer", above.

Swear comes from Proto-Indo-European *s-wór- “say aloud”, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/swear-from-PIE-swor.wav

*s-wór- also developed into Sanskrit स्वर svara “voice, sound, vowel”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-swor-to-Sanskrit-svara.wav
(as in the linguistics term svarabhakti, an inserted vowel), Sanskrit स्वरति svárati, and Ukrainian свари́ти swariti “argue, berate”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-swor-to-Ukrainian-swariti.wav
A pair of cartoon characters in the shape of inverted commas stand either side of an easel. The smaller one, at the left, holding a paintbrush, has a crestfallen expression. The larger character, on the right, is scowling. The caption at the top of the image reads (in Ukrainian) "to criticize, argue", the latter word being Ukrainian "svariti".
The caption at the top of the image reads (in Ukrainian) "to criticize, argue", the latter word being Ukrainian "svariti". From a Ukrainian educational website https://ukr-mova.in.ua/library/frazeologizmu/krutukuvatu,-svarutu

Dec 05, 2023

Sweat

Sweat comes from Proto-Indo-European *swoid-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sweat-from-PIE-swoid.wav

*swoid- also developed into Sanskrit स्वेदते sveedate:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-swoid-to-Sanskrit-sveedate.wav

Balochi ہید‎ hed:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-swoid-to-Balochi-hed.wav

and Iron Ossetian хид khid:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-swoid-to-Iron-xid.wav

Dec 06, 2023,

Sweet

Sweet comes from Proto-Indo-European *swehd-u-s [swa:dus], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/sweet-from-PIE-sweh2dus.wav

*swehd-u-s also developed into Sanskrit  स्वादु swaadu:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sweh2dus-to-Sanskrit-swadu.wav

Balochi واد waad “salt”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sweh2dus-to-Balochi-waad.wav

and Latin suavis ( → English suave):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-sweh2dus-to-Latin-suavis.wav

Also Bengali স্বাদ shaad “taste”, as in the image belowA selection of Bangladeshi snack foods, from the Facebook page of "Shaad", a snack food maker in Bangladesh.

A selection of Bangladeshi snack foods, from the Facebook page of "Shaad", a snack food maker in Bangladesh.

Dec 07, 2023

Swine

Swine comes from Proto-Indo-European *suh₁-īno- [su:hi:no], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/swine-from-PIE-suHino.wav

*suh₁-īno-  is derived from *suh₁- “pig” (cf. English “sow”). A derived form, *suh₁-kas, developed into Balochi ہوک‎ huuk:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suHka-to-Balochi-huuk.wav

The Persian pronunciation is خوک‎ [χu:cç]:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-suHka-to-Persian-xuuC.wav

In spite of its similarity to huuk, “hog” is unrelated.

Dec 11, 2023

T

Tame

Tame comes from Proto-Indo-European *dem- (or *demh₂), like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/tame-from-PIE-dem.wav

*dem- also developed into Persian دام dam “livestock”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dem-to-Persian-dam.wav

and Sanskrit दाम्यति damyati “to tame”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dem-to-Sanskrit-daamyati.wav

Cows feeding at a manger. From an Iranian news article about different kinds of fodder for livestock.
Cows feeding at a manger. From an Iranian news article about different kinds of fodder for livestock. The final (leftmost), highlighted word in the headline is دام "dam", meaning "livestock". Source: https://itpnews.com/Apps/get/content.php?id=21668.

Dec 14, 2023

Tear

To tear comes from Proto-Indo-European *derH- “tear, flay, peel”, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-derH-to-Persian-daridan.wav

*derH- also developed into Persian دریدن daridan:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-derH-to-Persian-daridan.wav

Balochi دِر‎ dir:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-derH-to-Balochi-dir.wav

and Lithuanian dìrti:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-derH-to-Lithuanian-dirti.wav

Jan 05, 2024

Ten

Ten comes via Old English tien and Proto-Germanic *tehun from Proto-Indo-European *déḱm̩, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/ten-from-PIE-dekm.wav

*déḱm̩ also developed into Ossetian дæс das:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dekm-to-Digor-das.wav

Pashto لس‎ las:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dekm-to-Pashto-las.wav

The suffixed form *déḱm̩-t became Lithuanian dešimt:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dekmt-to-Lithuanian-deSimt.wav

and Bosnian deset:
https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dekmt-to-BCS-deset.wav


Jan 08, 2024

That, there

The inanimate demonstrative that comes from Proto-Indo-European *to-d, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/that-from-PIE-tod.wav

*to-d also developed into Sanskrit तद् tad:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tod-to-Sanskrit-tad.wav

There is related, from *to-r:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/there-from-PIE-tor.wav

*to-r developed into Sanskrit तर्हि tarhi:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tor-to-Sanskrit-tarhi.wav


Flashcard from a Sanskrit lesson about Sanskrit tad, tat

Jan 09, 2024

Thatch

Thatch comes from Proto-Indo-European *teg-, like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thatch-from-PIE-teg.wav

*teg- also developed into Latin toga “toga, covering”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-teg-to-Latin-toga.wav

The related form *s-teg- (as in “stake”, https://www.ancientsounds.net/#stake) developed into Ukrainian стіг stigh “haystack”:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-steg-to-Ukrainian-stih.wav

Thatching of the roof of an Iron Age roundhouse at Chiltern Open Air Museum
Thatching of the roof of an Iron Age roundhouse at Chiltern Open Air Museum


Jan 10, 2024

Thin

Thin comes from Proto-Indo-European *tn̥h₂-u- [tn̩:u], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thin-from-PIE-tnh2u.wav

*tn̥h-u + suffix -kos also developed into Persian تنک tunuk:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tnh2u-to-Persian-tunuk.wav

and Balochi tanak:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tnh2u-to-Balochi-tanak.wav

Remarkably similarly, into Bosnian tanak:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tnh2u-to-BCMS-tanak.wav

and Bulgarian тънък tuhnuhk:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tnh2u-to-Bulgarian-tVnVk.wav

Jan 11, 2024

Third

Third comes from Proto-Indo-European *tri-tiho- [triti:o], like this (listen):
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/third-from-PIE-tritiHo.wav

*tri-tiho- also developed into Sanskrit तृतीय trtiya:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tritiHo-to-Sanskrit-trtiya.wav

and Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian treći:
🔈https://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tritiHo-to-BCMS-treCi.wav

Similarly in e.g. Latin tertium, Lithuanian trečias, Greek τρίτος tritos ...

Image from the website of the Bharat Scouts and Guides. The text reads (In English:) The Bharat Scouts and Guides. (In Devanagari script:) Tritiya sopan (meaning "third stage") jaanch vishay (meaning "test subjects")
Jan 12, 2024

Thirst

Thirst comes from Proto-Indo-European *tr̥s-tu like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thirst-from-PIE-trst.wav
(I've omitted the final [u])

The related form *tr̥s-no- developed into Persian تشنگی teshne:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trsno-to-Persian-teshne.wav

and Balochi تُنَّگ tunnag “frog, thirsty one”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trsno-to-Balochi-tunnag.wav

The stem *ters- also underlies Latin terra, "(dry) land".

A man in dusty clothes lies on the desert floor, holding an empty plastic bottle to his mouth. On the horizon are mountains. The heading, in Persian script, means "causes of excessive thirst". The word "thirst", teshne, is highlighted.

The heading, in Persian script, means "causes of excessive thirst". The word "thirst", تشنگی, teshne, is highlighted. Source: https://www.salamatnews.com/news/341384/%D8%B9%D9%84%D8%AA-%D8%AA%D8%B4%D9%86%DA%AF%DB%8C-%D8%B2%DB%8C%D8%A7%D8%AF

Jan 15, 2024

Thistle

Thistle comes from Proto-Indo-European *teig, represented here by its almost unchanged Balochi reflex تێگ teg “sharp, razor”, like this (listen):

🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thistle-from-PIE-teig.wav

*teig developed into Persian (and Urdu) تیز tiiz:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-teig-to-Persian-tiz.wav

Large thistle heads with purplish-pink composite flowers and pink-tipped rows of green spines. A bumble bee is on one of the flower heads.

Jan 18, 2024

Thorn

Thorn comes from Proto-Indo-European *trno [tr̩nõ], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thorn-from-PIE-trno.wav

*trno developed into Bengali তৃণ trino "grass, plant":
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-teig-to-Balochi-trino.wav
and also into Bosnian trn:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trno-to-Bosnian-trn.wav

Image from the Facebook page of Trino Dairy, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Two green trees with large upright leaves either side of a wooden sign on a stake. The Bengali word "trino" is written on the sign board. Grass grows at the bottom of the picture, and there are distant birds and clouds in the sky.
Image from the Facebook page of Trino Dairy, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The Bengali word তৃণ trino is written on the sign board.

Jan 19, 2024

Thorough, through

Thorough (here in American English) comes from Proto-Indo-European *terh₂-kʷe [terɐ̥kwe], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thorough-from-PIE-terh2kwe.wav
as does through:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/through-from-PIE-terh2kwe.wav

The derived form *trh₂- [trħa] developed into Sanskrit तिरस् tiras:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trh2a-to-Sanskrit-tiras.wav

*trh₂ +suffix -nts also lies behind Latin trans:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trh2a-to-Latin-trans.wav

Jan 22, 2024

Thou

Thou, now rather restricted in its use, comes from Proto-Indo-European *tuh₂ [tuɐ], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thou-from-PIE-tua.wav

*tuh₂ [tuɐ] developed into Persian تو tu:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tua-to-Persian-tu.wav

Balochi تئو tau:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tua-to-Balochi-tau.wav

Ossetian ды du ~ :
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tua-to-Iron-dE.wav

German du and French tu are also from this root.

Jan 24, 2024

Three

Three comes from Proto-Indo-European *trei-, like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/three-from-PIE-trei.wav

The masculine nominative form *trei-es developed into Sanskrit त्रयस् trayas:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-treies-to-Sanskrit-trayas.wav
and Latin tres.

*trei- developed into Sindhi ٽي te:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trei-to-Sindhi-te.wav

Balochi سے se:

🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trei-to-Balochi-se.wav

and Romani trin:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-trei-to-Romani-trin.wav

Jan 25, 2024

Older posts:

26 May 2015. Three comes from Proto-Indo-European *treyes. Not from Spanish tres, but that's the nearest I've got. Listen: http://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/three-from-treis.wav. Here's the MP3 version: http://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/three-from-treis.mp3

9 June 2015 [Corrected]. *tre(ye)s has lost final [s] in Latin tres > Italian tre, Iberian Spanish tres > American Spanish tre http://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/treis-to-tre.wav. We model the loss of final -s by a kind of fade-out rather than an all-or-nothing deletion. This gives an intermediate stage tres > treh.

1 July 2015. Balochi for three is [se:], from *tre(yes) via *te:. In this demo, [te:] is from Sindhi: http://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/Balochi-se-from-tre.wav. I'm quite pleased with the s-to-t transformation in this example.

Apr 30, 2019. I've been making some videos to illustrate processes of sound change using spectrograms that morph from one into another. First, here's [te] changing into [se] (which happened in Balochi): 🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/te-to-se.mp4. See the energy rising at the left?

Thunder

Thunder comes from Proto-Indo-European *tenh₂- [tenɐ̥], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/thunder-from-PIE-tenh2.wav

*tenh₂ also developed into Persian تندر tondar:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-tenh2-to-Persian-tondar.wav

The prefixed form *s-tenh₂- [stenɐ] developed into Ancient and Modern Greek στενάζω stenazo “groan”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-stenh2-to-Greek-stenazo.wav
and lies behind “Stentorian”: meaning “having a thundering voice”:.

Screenshot from a trailer for the movie "Thor: Love and Thunder", from the Persian language website https://www.aparat.com/v/R2Iwj in which the thunder god Thor reaches out towards his hammer. The last (leftmost) word in the the caption below, highlighted is "tondar", Persian for thunder.
Screenshot from a trailer for the movie “Thor: Love and Thunder”, in which the thunder god Thor reaches out towards his hammer. The last (leftmost) word in the the caption below, highlighted is تندر “tondar”, Persian for thunder. From the Persian language website https://www.aparat.com/v/R2Iwj

Jan 26, 2024

Tide, Time

Tide comes from Proto-Indo-European *dhi-tí- [dɐití]:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/tide-from-PIE-dh2iti.wav

Time also comes from Proto-Indo-European *dhi-, specifically *dhi-mon [dɐimon]:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/time-from-PIE-dh2imon.wav

*dhi-tí- also lies behind Albanian ditë “day”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dh2iti-to-Albanian-dite.wav

and *dhi-mon developed into Kurdish dem:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dh2imon-to-Kurdish-dem.wav

“Demon” is from the same root.

A street scene in Tirana, Albania. The sign over the shop door reads "Farmaci Ditë e Natë", meaning "Day and Night Pharmacy" in Albanian.
The sign over this shop door in Tirana, Albania, reads “Farmaci Ditë e Natë”, meaning “Day and Night Pharmacy” in Albanian. From an Albanian news website, https://www.oranews.tv/shendetesi/dite-e-nate-edhe-tek-myslym-shyri-i999052

Jan 29, 2024


Tomorrow

(To)morrow comes from Proto-Indo-European *mrk [mr̩:k], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/tomorrow-from-PIE-mrHk.wav

Morn is from the same root:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/morn-from-PIE-mrHk.wav

*mrk also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian, and Slovenian mrak “dark, dusk”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-mrHk-to-Bosnian-mrak.wav

Photograph of three pieces of dark baklava (in Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian "mrak baklava")

Photograph of three pieces of dark baklava (in Bosnian-Croatian-Serbian "mrak baklava"), from a recipe website https://www.recepti.com/kuvar/kolaci/13000-mrak-baklava

Feb 02, 2024

Matt Hodgkinson @mattjhodgkinson@scicomm.xyz commented:

Also the English word "murk"


Tongue

Tongue comes from Proto-Indo-European *dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/tongue-from-PIE-dngweh2.wav

*dnǵweh₂ also developed into Pashto ژبه‎ zhaba (also meaning "language"):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dngweh2-to-Pashto-Zaba.wav

Sanskrit जिह्वा jihvaa:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dngweh2-to-Sanskrit-jihvaa.wav

Romani chib:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dngweh2-to-Romani-chib.wav

Latin lingua (Old Latin dingua):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dngweh2-to-Latin-lingua.wav

The Pashto word "zhaba", written in Arabic script. From a Pashto webpage on the topic "what is language?"
The Pashto word "zhaba", written in Arabic script. From a Pashto webpage on the topic "what is language?" https://wasiweb.com/

Feb 05, 2024


Tooth

English tooth comes from Proto-Indo-European *hdónt-, via Proto-Germanic *tānþ and Anglo-Saxon tōþ, something like this, listen:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-h1dont-to-English-tooth.wav
or if you prefer MP3 audio:

🔈https://phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/PIE-h1dont-to-English-tooth.mp3

Sep 18, 2020

Tooth has two slightly different proposed etymologies: either PIE *hd-ónt-, “eater”, or from *hd-ónt- [ɵ̥dont]. As the laryngeals are whispered, it doesn't greatly affect the simulation (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/tooth-from-PIE-h1dont.wav

The stem also developed into Ancient Greek ὀδόντος odontos:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-h1dont-to-AncientGreek-odontos.wav

More simulations at http://www.ancientsounds.net/#tooth

Feb 06, 2024


Daniel @schoudaan@autistics.life commented:

That's such a fun etymology! I was taught that the o in Greek pointed to it being an h₃ rather than an h₁. Is that not as certain as I was led to believe?

It is not certain, no, as philologists differ on this point, I gather. Initial h₃ is an obvious possibility, but if it is reconstructed with h₁, the [o] in Greek would need an ad hoc explanation, such as anticipatory vowel-to-vowel coarticulation or assimilation. As a phonetician, I find that a perfectly reasonable and satisfactory explanation. But I don't feel competent (nor duty-bound) to take a stand on this question either way. Who am I to referee Ringe vs. Kroonen?

Daniel @schoudaan@autistics.life replied:

Oh, I see. So the general rule of h₃ > o still holds, but there are competing explanations in this case? That makes a lot of sense! And I imagine there may also be competing explanations in other words that feature a laryngeal.

Come to think of it, I guess the same is true of most other sound laws. 😅 Though I suppose laryngeals are particularly hard to pin down.

The general rule is good, and this is a rare exception. Or it might not be, if the *hed- reconstruction is correct.

The general rule is motivated especially by Ancient Greek. It gets more complicated in other languages.

I am growing a webpage about it at


Tree

Tree comes from Proto-Indo-European *drew [drəʊ], like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/tree-from-PIE-drew.wav

True also comes from *drew, perhaps relating to swearing by trees?
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/true-from-PIE-drew.wav
As in “druid” (Proto-Celtic *druwits, “oak-knower”).

*drew is a variant of *doru:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-drew-to-PIE-doru.wav

that led to Balochi دار daar “wood”:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-doru-to-Balochi-daar.wav

*doru led to Sanskrit दारु daaru:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-doru-to-Sanskrit-daaru.wav

— almost the same as Proto-Celtic *daru, that developed into Irish and Scottish Gaelic doire/Doire "oak wood/Derry":
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-doru-to-Irish-Doire.wav

Emblem of the Derry Gaelic Athletic Association: three oak leaves above two acorns, with the Irish name Doire written beneath

Emblem of the Derry Gaelic Athletic Association

Feb 09, 2024

Two

Two comes (via Anglo-Saxon twa) from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh₁- [dwoh]:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/two-from-PIE-dwoh1.wav

*dwóh₁- led to Pashto دوه duwa:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dwoh1-to-Pashto-duwa.wav

Balochi (and Urdu) دو doo:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dwoh1-to-Balochi-doo.wav

and Romani dui:
http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-dwoh1-to-Romani-dui.wav

More examples at http://www.phon.ox.ac.uk/jcoleman/ancient-sounds-database.html

Feb 13, 2024


Under

Under comes from Proto-Indo-European *ndʰér, like this (listen):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/under-from-PIE-ndher.wav

*ndʰér also led to Sanskrit अधर adhara:
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ndher-to-Sanskrit-adhara.wav

and also Latin infer(nus):
🔈http://www.ancientsounds.net/eastern-origins/PIE-ndher-to-Latin-infernus.wav

Feb 19, 2024


Wasp

An experiment in non-segmental metathesis

Wasp developed from earlier "waps". The apparent movement/exchange of /p/ and /s/ can be modelled as a gradual change using morphing. In this spectrographic video clip, the pale valley around t = 15 is the low-intensity [p] closure, which progressively "fills up" with sibilance, while at the same time, the sibilant ridge at about t = 30 descends to a valley, the new, now later [p] closure.

(When I click on this image, Firefox tells me "Video can't be played because the file is corrupt.", but it's not actually corrupt: if you right-click and download the video to your local drive, it is possible to play it in other software you may have for playing videos.)

Mar 28, 2023