Audio Etymological Lexicon

Hear how English words evolved from Proto-Indo-European, and from Proto-Indo-European into selected “Eastern” languages

The audio simulations on this site illustrate how over 340 spoken English words are thought to have developed over thousands of years from their ancestral Proto-Indo-European pronunciations, and how those ancient pronunciations also developed into various “Eastern” languages. The meanings of the words in other languages are not always the same as in English, because meanings often shift over time; here we focus on how the sounds of words have evolved. Click on any of the blue links to hear my audio simulations of those changes over thousands of years. To hear them most clearly, it's best to listen with headphones. If you want to download any of the audio files, right-click on the down-arrow symbols (depending on your browser settings, may open in a new tab or webpage). The large table below is difficult for screen readers. This blog (link here) is more readable.

Because there weren't any audio recordings in ancient times, I sometimes have to use roughly similar sounds instead, in which case there will of course be inaccuracies. And since we have no way of knowing exactly how the ancestral forms of words were pronounced, all these simulations are “my best guess, given the current state of our knowledge, the available recordings, and the limitations of my software”. Often I just simulate the main part of the word, ignoring inflections, suffixes etc. I welcome comments, corrections etc. by email to john.coleman@phon.ox.ac.uk , or message me @ancientsounds@mastodonapp.uk on Mastodon . (If you want to learn more about how the simulations of sound change are made, there is a slightly out of date technical article here .)

Note on transcriptions: In the middle column I use conventional philological notation with my own phonetic transcriptions in square brackets. These phonetic transcriptions reflect the audio simulations rather than some theoretically predicted pronunciations. If you are not familiar with these kinds of transcription, the linked audio clips demonstrate what pronunciations the transcriptions try to express. In the right-hand column, especially for languages written in non-Roman scripts, I use a simplified notation based on English spelling. I hope that this will be less confusing to most readers than the diverse specialist notations used for different languages in academic philological works. For the reconstructed ancestral forms, I mainly follow Ringe (2006) and Kroonen (2009), with my own phonetic interpretations.

English words come from Proto-Indo-European ancestors which also developed into Examples of “Eastern” relatives (with some Greek and Latin examples where appropriate)
a (see “an”, “any”, “one”)
Anglo-Saxon ān
comes from *h₁ói-nos [oinos]

developed into Albanian një
Proto-Germanic *aina
The variant form *h₁ói-kos [hoikos] developed into Mittanian aika, borrowed into (non-Indo-European) Hurrian 𒀀𒄿𒅗 aika


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos] also developed into Assamese এক ek


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos] also developed into Nepali एक ek


The variant form *h₁ói-wos [hoiwos] developed into Pashto یو yau


*h₁ói-wos [hoiwos] also developed into Ancient Greek οἶος hoios “only”
acre
Anglo-Saxon æcer 
comes from *h₂eǵ-ro-s [ɐg̟ʲrós], earlier [ħɐg̟ʲrós] developed into
Sanskrit अज्र ajra “field”, that developed into Hindi ajira
after (see “off”)
, Scots efter
Anglo-Saxon æfter
comes from *h₂ep-tero- [æptərə]. The derived form *h₂ep-ér- [apér] developed into Sanskrit अपर apara


*h₂ep-tero- [æptərə] developed into Albanian afër
aghast (see “ghastly”, “ghost”) comes from *ǵʰois-d-o- developed into Persian زشت‎ zesht “ugly”
ale
Anglo-Saxon ealu
comes from *h₂el-u-t [ħɐɫʊt], earlier [ħɛlʊt]
borrowed (from Germanic) into Ossetian ӕлутон alúton (no recording available), then borrowed into Finnish olut
all
Anglo-Saxon eall
comes from *h₂el-nó- [ħɐln—]  developed into Sanskrit अरण्य aranya “wilderness”
am (see “is”)
Anglo-Saxon eom
comes from *h₁és-mi [əsmi]
developed into
Sanskrit अस्मि asmi
an (see “a”, “any”, “one”)
Anglo-Saxon ān
Proto-Germanic *aina
comes from *h₁óin-os [oinos] developed into Albanian një
angle
Anglo-Saxon angel
comes from *h₂enk-ul-ó- [aŋk—], earlier [ħaŋk—] developed into
Iron Ossetian æнгуыр angur “fishing hook”


*h₂enk- [ħaŋk] also developed into Sanskrit अङ्क anka “hook, bend”


*h₂enk- [ħaŋk] also developed into Ancient Greek ἄγκος ‎angos “a bend”
ankle comes from *h₂eng-ul- [aŋgʊl], stem *h₂eng- “joint”, earlier [ħæŋg] developed into Persian انگشت angusht “finger”


*h₂eng- [ħæŋg] also developed into Siraiki angutha “thumb”


*h₂eng-ul- [aŋgʊl] also developed into Sanskrit अंगुली anguli “finger”


*h₂eng-ul- [aŋgʊl] also developed into Ancient Greek ἀγκύλος angulos
answer (see “swear”)
Anglo-Saxon andswaru
comes from *s-uór- [swor]
developed into Sanskrit स्वर svara “voice, sound”


*s-uór- [swor] also developed into Ukrainian свари́ти swariti “argue, berate”
any (see “a”, “an”, “one”)
Anglo-Saxon ænig
comes from *óin-os [oinos], earlier *h₁oi-no-s developed into Albanian një “a, an, one”
apple comes from
*h₂ebol [ħɑboɫ] developed into Lithuanian obuolys


*h₂ebol [ħɑboɫ] also developed into South Slavic (e.g. Macedonian) jabolko, which pronunciation further developed to Bosnian jabuka
arm, Scots airm
Anglo-Saxon earm
comes from
*h₂erH-mos [armos], earlier [ħer:mos] developed into
Sanskrit ईर्म irma


*h₂erH-mos [ħer:mos] also developed into Ancient Greek ἁρμός harmos, Modern Greek αρμός armos
ash (dusty material; see “star”) comes from *h₂eh₂s [ħaχs], reduplicated form of *h₂es- burn developed into Urdu خاکی‎ khaki, borrowed into English khaki
Anglo-Saxon æsce
*h₂eh₂s [ħaχs] also developed into Old Latin asa, Latin ara “altar”
ash (tree) comes from
*h₃esk- [osk]
developed into
Armenian հաճարի hachari beech”
Proto-Germanic *aska
*h₃esk- [osk] also developed into Modern Greek οξιά oksia (Ancient Greek ὀξύᾱ oksüa)
ask
Proto-Germanic *aisko
comes from
*h₂oisk- [ħoisk]. Zero-grade form *h₂isk-o [ħisko] developed into
Sanskrit इच्छा ichaa “desire”


*h₂oisk- [ħoisk] also developed into Armenian այց aits “visit, search, care for”
bade [bad]
Anglo-Saxon bæd
comes from
*bʰodʰ-, a form of *bʰedʰ-, or *gʷʰedʰ developed into
Bosnian žedan zhedan “thirsty”
bade [beɪd] also comes from *bʰodʰ-

bairn (see “bear”)
Middle English bern
comes from *bʰor-no, a form of *bʰer- developed into Sanskrit भरण bharana “bearing”
band (see “bind”) comes from *bʰéndʰ- developed into Persian بند band “band”
barrow
Anglo-Saxon beorg
comes from *bʰerǵʰ-os. *bʰerǵʰ- developed into Arabic برج burj “tower” (via Middle Persian burg)


*bʰerǵʰ- also developed into Persian برج borj “tower”


*bʰerǵʰ- also developed into Kurdish برج berdz “tower”


*bʰerǵʰ- also developed into Balochi برز ئه borza height”
be
Anglo-Saxon bēon
comes from *bʰuh₂ [bʱuɐ̆], earlier [bʱuɐ̥̆], [bʱuħ] developed into Persian بودن budan, Balochi بو bu


*bʰuh₂ [bʱuɐ̆] also developed into Albanian bo world”
to bear (see “bairn”) comes from *bʰer- developed into Sanskrit भर bhar “bearing”
Anglo-Saxon beran
*bʰer- also developed into Persian بار bar “burden”
beat
Anglo-Saxon bēatan
comes from
*bʰóud- developed into
Armenian բութ but
beech (see “book”)
Anglo-Saxon bēċ
comes from
*bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ], earlier [bʱeɑ̆g̟ʲ] developed into
Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian bazga


*bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ] also developed into Doric Greek φᾱγός pagos


*bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ] also developed into Latin fagus
bellows
comes from *bʰolǵʰis developed into Persian بالش balesh “pillow, cushion”
belly
Anglo-Saxon bel(i)ġ
also comes from *bʰolǵʰis

bequeath (see “quoth”)
Anglo-Saxon cwēþan
comes from
*gʷet-. Likely related to * gʷed-, which developed into Sanskrit गदति gadati “to speak”
bid
Anglo-Saxon bēodan
comes from
*bʰeudʰ- developed into
Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha “awakened”
bind (see “band”)
Anglo-Saxon bindan
comes from
*bʰéndʰ- developed into
Persian بند band “band”
bite
Anglo-Saxon bītan
comes from
*bʰéid-
developed into
Sanskrit भिद् bhid-⇩


*bʰéid- also developed into Ancient Greek φείδομαι pheidomai
black
Proto-Germanic *blaika
comes from
*bʰléiǵ-
developed into
Sanskrit भ्रज bhrajati
bleach also comes from *bʰléiǵ-

bleat
Anglo-Saxon blæ̅tan
comes from
*bʰleh₁- [bʱle:], [bʱleə], earlier [bʱleh] developed into
Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian brbljati


*bʰleh₁- [bʱleə] also developed into Latvian blēt
blossom
Anglo-Saxon blostm
comes from
*bʰléh₃-e- [bʱlo:ə], earlier [bʱléŏə] developed into
Bengali ফুল phul
blow (to bloom)
Proto-Germanic *blōan
also comes from *bʰléh₃-e- [bʱlo:ə] also developed into Latin flos
book (see “beech”)
Anglo-Saxon bōc
comes from *bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ], earlier [bʱeɑ̆g̟ʲ] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian bazga
to bore
Anglo-Saxon borian
comes from
*bʰr(H)-eh₂- [bʱr̩hɐ], earlier [bʱr̩heħ] developed into
Sanskrit भारती bharati


Related form *bʰor(H)-eh₂- [bʱorhɐ] developed into Proto-Italic *forao (which became Latin foro)
bottom
Anglo-Saxon botm
comes from
*bʰudʰ-mén- 
developed into
Persian بن‎ bun
bough
Anglo-Saxon bōg
comes from
*bʰeh₂ǵʰ-u- [bʱag̟ʲʱ-]
developed into
Persian بازو bazu


*bʰeh₂ǵʰ-u- [bʱag̟ʲʱ-] also developed into Aeolic Greek πᾶχῠς pakhus
bright
Anglo-Saxon berht
comes from
*bʰerh₁ǵ- [bʱeɾɘg̟ʲ]
developed into
Persian برازیدن‎ barozidan “beautify”


*bʰerh₁ǵ- [bʱeɾɘg̟ʲ] also developed into Lithuanian brėkšta “to dawn”
bristle
Anglo-Saxon byrst
comes from
*bʰr̥stís [bʱr̩sti̥s]
developed into
Sanskrit भृष्टि bhrshti “tip, point, spike”


*bʰr̥stís [bʱr̩sti̥s] also developed into Ukrainian борщ borshch “hogweed, beetroot soup”
brother
Anglo-Saxon brōþor
comes from
*bʰréh₂tēr [bʱráte:r] developed into
Sanskrit भ्राता bhraata


*bʰréh₂tēr [bʱráte:r] also developed into Persian برادر barodar
brow
Anglo-Saxon brū
comes from
*h₃bʰruH-s [ŏ̥bʱɾuəs]
developed into
Urdu ابرو abru


*h₃bʰruH-s [ŏ̥bʱɾuəs] also developed into Ancient Greek ὀφρῦς ophrus
call
Anglo-Saxon ceall(ian)
comes from
*gols-
developed into
Bosnian glas
can (see “know”)
Scots ken
Proto-Germanic *kann
comes from
*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ]
developed into
Urdu جاننا jaanna


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Lithuanian žinau


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Balochi زان zan


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Ancient Greek γνώση gnose
care
Anglo-Saxon cearu
comes from
*ǵh̥₂r- [g̟ɐɹ̝] developed into
Doric Greek γᾶρυς garus


*ǵh̥₂r- [g̟ɐɹ̝] also developed into Ossetian зар zar “song” (no recording available)
carve
Anglo-Saxon ceorfan
comes from
*gerbʰ-
developed into
Albanian gërvisht “scratch”
chin
Proto-Germanic *kinn
comes from
*ǵenu [g̟enu] developed into

Persian زنخ zanakh


*ǵenu [g̟enu] also developed into Persian چانه chaane
choose
Anglo-Saxon ceosan
comes from
*ǵéus- [g̟ju:s]
developed into
Persian دوست duust “friend”, borrowed into Urdu as دوست dost
cold (see “cool”)
Anglian cald
comes from
*ǵól-to-, a form of *ḱel-to- developed into
Persian سرد sardborrowed into Urdu as سرد serd
come
Anglo-Saxon cuman
comes from
*gʷem-
developed into
Sanskrit गमति gamati
cool (see “cold”)
Anglo-Saxon cōl
comes from
*ǵól-, a form of *ḱel-to- developed into Persian سرد sard ,  borrowed into Urdu as سرد serd
corn
Anglo-Saxon corn
comes from
*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno], earlier [grħnó] developed into
Sanskrit जीर्ण jiirna “worn out”


*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Lithuanian žirnis “pea”


*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Latvian zirni “peas”


*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Czech zrn “grains”


*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Latin granum
cow, Scots coo
Anglo-Saxon
comes from
*gʷeh₃-u-s [gwous] developed into
Dari گاو gau, Persian گاو gov


*gʷeh₃-u-s [gwous] also developed into Ancient Greek βοῦς bous
crane
Anglo-Saxon crān
comes from
*gr-on- (possibly) also developed into
Persian کلنگ kolang
cud
Anglo-Saxon cudu, cwidu
comes from
*gʷétu
developed into
Sanskrit जतु jatu “gum, resin”
cycle (via Latin from Ancient Greek κύκλος küklos; see “wheel”) comes from *kʷekʷlos [kwekʷlos], from *kʷe-kʷel-os “move around and around”, reduplication of *kʷel- “move around” developed into
Ancient Greek κύκλος klos


*kʷekʷlos [kwekʷlos] also developed into Sanskrit चक्र chakra, that developed into Urdu چکر chakar
dale
Anglo-Saxon dæ̅l
comes from *dʰol [dʱol] developed into Ukrainian Долина Dolyna, a place name, “Dale”
dare (see “durst”)
Anglo-Saxon dearr
comes from
*dʰors-
developed into
Persian داشتن daashtan “to have, hold”


*dʰors- also developed into Sanskrit धर्षति dharshati “dare, challenge”
daughter, Scots dochter
Anglo-Saxon dohtor
comes from
*dʰugh₂tḗr [dʱugɐté:ɾ], earlier [dʱugħté:ɾ] developed into
Persian دختر dukhter


*dʰugh₂tḗr [dʱugħté:r] also developed into Ancient Greek θυγατέρα thugatera
day
Anglo-Saxon dæ̅g
comes from
*dʰegʷʰ- [dʱəgʷʱ] developed into Urdu داغ dagh “a burn”
deed (see “do”)
Anglo-Saxon dæ̅d
comes from
*dʰéh₁-ti- [e:ti] developed into
Sanskrit धातु dhaatu


*dʰéh₁-ti- [e:ti]  also developed into Ancient Greek θέσις thesis
deep
Anglo-Saxon dēop
comes from
*dʰeub- [dʱɛʊb] developed into
Albanian det “sea”
deer
Anglo-Saxon dēor
comes from
*dʰeus-
developed into
Urdu دھنسنا dhasna “to fall”


*dʰeus- also developed into Lithuanian dvasia “spirit, breath”
dew
Anglo-Saxon dēaw
comes from
*dʰouh₂ [dʱoʊɐ] developed into
Sanskrit धव् dhav “run, flow”
do (see “deed”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic
comes from *dʰoh₁- [dʱo:], a form of *dʰéh₁- developed into Sanskrit धा dhaa “something put down”
door
Anglo-Saxon duru
comes from
*dʰur- and related form *dʰwor- developed into
Ossetian дуар dwar


*dʰwor- also developed into Sanskrit dvar, which further developed into Punjabi ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ gurdwara = gur+dwara “gateway to the gurus”; see “quern”.


*dʰwor- also developed into Romani vudar


*dʰwor- also developed into Persian در dar
dream
Anglo-Saxon drēam
comes from
*dʰrougʰ-mo-
developed into
Persian دروغ doroog “untruth, lie, falsehood”
durst (see “dare”)
Anglo-Saxon durr
comes from *dʰors- developed into Persian داشتن daashtan “have, hold”


*dʰors- also developed into Sanskrit धर्षति dharshati “dare, challenge”
ear
Anglo-Saxon ēare
comes from *h₂ous [aus], earlier [hɐus], [ħɐus]. The dual form, *h₂ṓus-ih₁, developed into Persian هوش‎ hoosh
Proto-Germanic *auza
Another inflected form, *h₂óus-es- [hɒuses], developed into Lithuanian ausis
earth, Scottish earth
Anglo-Saxon ēorþe
comes from
*h₁ér-t- [e:rt], earlier [hɘrt]
developed into
Albanian varr


*h₁ér-t- [hɘrt] also developed into Persian خر kharr “mud”


*h₁ér-t- [hɘrt] also developed into Zazaki her
east
Anglo-Saxon ēast
comes from
*h₂eus- [hæus]. The related form *h₂us- developed into
Sanskrit उषस् ushas “dawn”


*h₂eus- [hæus] also developed into Latin Aurora
eat (see “tooth”)
Anglo-Saxon etan
comes from
*h₁éd- [ɛd]
developed into
Sanskrit अत्ति atti


*h₁éd- [ɛd] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian jedem


*h₁éd- [ɛd] also developed into Ancient Greek ἔδω edo
edge (see “heaven”)
Anglo-Saxon ecg
comes from
*h₂eḱ- [ħakʲ], from earlier [ħekʲ],
developed into
Persian آس aas “millstone”


*h₂eḱ- [ħakʲ] also developed into Ancient Greek ἀκίς akis “barb”
egg, a loan from Old Norse comes from
*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio]
developed into
Persian خایه‎ haye
Anglo-Saxon æ̅ġ
Proto-Germanic *ajja
also comes from
*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio], which also developed into Balochi ہیک hayk


*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio] also developed into Pashto هګئ hagey


*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio], derived from *h₂eu-is [ħɐʊɪs] “bird”, which developed into Armenian հավ hav “bird”


*h₂eu-is [ħɐʊɪs] also developed into Latin avis “bird”
eight, Scots eicht = Middle English eiȝt
Anglian æhta
comes from
*h₂oḱtṓu developed into
Tajik ҳашт hasht
eke (see “wax”)
Anglo-Saxon eac
comes from
*h₂éug- [hɑug], which developed into
Latvian augt “grow”


*h₂éug- [hɑug] also developed into Lithuanian aukštas “high, tall”


*h₂éug- [hɑug] also developed into Latin Augustus “increased, honored”
elbow = ell -bow
Anglo-Saxon elne
comes from
*Heh₃l-én-eh₂- [ho̥léna]
developed into
Persian ارنج arenj


*Heh₃l-én-eh₂- [ho̥léna] also developed into Modern Greek ωλένη oleni “ulna, elbow bone”


*Heh₃l-én-eh₂- [ho̥léna] also developed into Latin ulna


*Heh₃l-é- [holé] developed into Latvian olekts
else
Anglo-Saxon elles 
comes from
*h₂él-io-s [ɐlios], earlier [ħelios] developed into
Armenian այլ ayl “other, also, but”
empty (see “mete”)
Anglo-Saxon æmtig
comes from *méd-e- “measure”
developed into
Armenian միտք ‎ mitk’ “mind, idea”
English (see “hangnail”)
Anglo-Saxon engel
comes from *h₂emǵʰ-u- [ħaŋgʱu] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian uzak “narrow”
Proto-Germanic *angwu
*h₂emǵʰ-u- [ħaŋgʱu] also developed into Latin ango “choke, constrict”
enough
Middle English ynogh
comes from
*h₂noḱ- [ɐ̥nok], earlier [ħnok] developed into
Sanskrit नशति nashati “to reach, attain”
Anglo-Saxon genog
*h₂e-h₂noḱ- [ħɐ̥ħnok] also developed into Albanian kënaq “satisfy”


*h₂noḱ- [ħnok] also developed into Ancient Greek ἀνάγκη anangke “necessity”


The derived form *h₂nḱ- [ħnk] developed into Armenian հասնել hasnel “reach”
ewe
Anglo-Saxon ēow
comes from *h₃éu-i-s [ʕo:is] (Simulation 1)

Alternatively, ewe  comes from
*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] (Simulation 2) developed into Sanskrit अवि avi


*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] also developed into Lithuanian avis


*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] also developed into Armenian հովիվ hovif “shepherd”


*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] also developed into Bosnian ovca
eye
Anglo-Saxon ēge
comes from
*h₃okʷ [okʷ], a form of *h₃ekʷ [ʕekʷ] (?) developed into
Urdu آنکھ aankh


*h₃okʷ [okʷ] also developed into Romani yakh


*h₃okʷ [okʷ] also developed into Armenian ակն ‎akn


*h₃okʷ [okʷ] also developed into Latin oculus
fallow (colour, as in “fallow deer”) comes from
*polh₁-uo [polwo]. The related form *polh₁-tos [polɪtos] developed into
Sanskrit पलित palita “grey”
Anglo-Saxon fealu
From the same stem *polh₁-, another inflected form, *polh₁-yos, developed into Ancient Greek πολιός ‎‎polios “grey”


Another form of the same root, *pelh₁-, developed into Latvian pelēks
fare (see “ford”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic faran
comes from
*pór-e-
developed into
Persian پل pul “bridge”
fart
Anglo-Saxon feortan
comes from *pérd-e-
developed into Urdu پادری pardri
fast (Northern English pronunciation = Anglo-Saxon fæst)
comes from *ph₂sth₂-o- [pastao]. *ph₂st(h₂)-  developed into Armenian հաստ hast “firm, steady”


*ph₂sth₂- developed from *ph₂ǵ-sth₂- “fix/stand”. *ph₂ǵ- continued almost unchanged in the stem of Latin paganus “countrysider” (pagus = “region, countryside”)
father (see “food”)
Anglo-Saxon fæder
comes from *ph₂-tḗr [pɑté:r], earlier [pħté:r] developed into Persian پدر‎ pedar


*ph₂-tḗr [pɑté:r] also developed into Latin pater
feather (see “fern”)
Anglo-Saxon feþer
comes from *péth₂r- [pétɐr], earlier [pétħr] developed into Armenian փետուր petur


The stem *péth₂- [pétɐ] also developed into Modern Greek πέταλο petalo “petal, horseshoe”


*péth₂- [pétɐ] also developed into Marathi पत्र patra
fee
Anglo-Saxon feoh
comes from *péḱu [pék̟ʉ] developed into Sanskrit पशु ‎pashu


*péḱu [pék̟ʉ] also developed into Punjabi ਪਸ਼ੂ pashu
fern (see “feather”)
Anglo-Saxon fearn
comes from *pterh₂ [pterħ] (Kroonen) developed into Persian پر per “feather, wing”


*pterh₂ [pterħ] also developed into Ancient Greek πτερά ptera “feathers, wings”
few
Anglo-Saxon feawe
comes from *ph₂u- [pɐu], earlier [pħu] developed into Urdu پُوت‎ puut “son”


*ph₂u- [pɐu] also developed into Latin paucus
field (see “flat”)
Anglo-Saxon feld
comes from *pelth₂- [peltɐ] ~ [peltħ]. Variant form *plth₂- [pl̩tɐ] developed into Sanskrit पृथु prthu “broad, wide”


Alternative analysis: *pelh₂- [pelɐ], variant *polh₂- [polɐ] developed into Proto-Slavic and Polish pole


*pelh₂- [pelɐ] further developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian and Slovenian polje
fiend
Anglo-Saxon fēond
comes from *ph₁-i-ont- [pi:ont]
developed into Sanskrit पीयति piyati “hate”
fierce
Middle English fers
comes from *ǵʰwēr- developed into Persian شیر shir, which was adapted into Mandarin Chinese 狮子 shizi sh’dz’ “lion”
from Latin fērus
*ǵʰwēr- also developed into Lithuanian žvėrinė “huntress”
fight
Anglo-Saxon feoht
comes from *peḱ-t-e. The derived form *poḱ-s-mn̥ developed into Persian پشم pashm “wool”
film
Proto-Germanic *felma
comes from *pel-mo. A related form *pel-no developed into Bosnian pelena “diaper”
find (see “path”)
Anglo-Saxon findan
comes from *pént-e-
developed into Vedic Sanskrit पन्थासो panthaso “path”, borrowed into Bengali পন্থা pontha
fire
Anglo-Saxon fȳr
comes from *péh₂‐ur [pa(ħ)ur]
developed into Balochi پُر phor “ashes, flames”
first (see “former”)
Anglo-Saxon fyrst
comes from *preh₂- [pʰreɐ], earlier [pʰreħ]
developed into Hindi प्रथम pratham


*preh₂- [pʰreɐ] also developed into Doric Greek πρᾶτος pratos


The derived form *prh₂-wos [pʰrɐwos] developed into Sanskrit पूर्व purva


*prh₂-wos [pʰrɐwos] also developed into Bulgarian първо prrvo
five
Anglo-Saxon fīf
comes from *pénkwe
developed into Proto-Indo-Iranian and Sanskrit पञ्च pancha
Proto-Germanic *fimfe
*pénkwe further developed into Urdu پانچ panch, borrowed into English “punch” (drink made of five ingredients)


*pénkwe also developed into Balochi پنچ‎ panch


*pénkwe also developed into Kurdish پێنج, pênc pench


*pénkwe also developed into Punjabi ਪੰਜ panj, as in ਪੰਜਾਬ Punj Ab “five rivers”


*pénkwe also developed into Persian پنج‎ panj


*pénkwe also developed into European Romani panzh


*pénkwe also developed into Ossetian фондз fondz


*pénkwe also developed into Pashto پنځه pindza


*pénkwe also developed into Armenian հինգ hing


*pénkwe also developed into Ancient Greek πέντε pente


*pénkwe also developed into Albanian pesë


*pénkwe also developed into Welsh pump


*pénkwe also developed into Oscan 𐌐𐌖𐌌𐌐𐌄 pumpe, which developed into Italian Pompei


*pénkwe also developed into Latin quinque


*pénkwe also developed into Irish cúig


A derived form, *pnkw-ti, developed into Ukrainian п'ять pjatj


*pnkw-ti also developed into Bosnian pet


*pnkw-ti also developed into Lithuanian penki


*pnkw-ti also developed into Latvian piektdiena “fifth day” i.e. Friday
flat (see “field”)
Loan from Old Norse flatr
comes from *plth₂- [pl̩tɐ] developed into Sanskrit पृथु prthu “broad, wide”


*plth₂- [pl̩tɐ] also developed into Ancient Greek Πλαταια Plataia, a city-state, literally “Flat Country”
flax
Anglo-Saxon fleax
comes from *pleḱ-t-
developed into Sanskrit प्रश्न prashna “woven basket”


*pleḱ-t- also developed into Ukrainian плести́ plesti “weave”
flow
Anglo-Saxon flōwan
comes from *plṓu-e- [pʰloʊə]
developed into Ukrainian плавати plavati “float, swim”, Slovenian plavati
= Proto-Germanic *flōan
*plṓu-e- also developed into Sanskrit अन्ववप्लु plavate “dive”
fodder (see “food”)
Anglo-Saxon fodor
comes from *peh₂- [peħ, peɐ̥] developed into Persian پاییدن payidan “protect, feed”


*peh₂- [peɐ̥] also developed into Latin pastum “pasture”
foe
Middle English foo
Anglo-Saxon fah
comes from *póiḱ-o-. The derived form *piḱ- developed into Sanskrit पिशुन pishuna “evil”
food (see “fodder”, “father”)
Anglo-Saxon fōda
comes from *peh₂- [peħ, peɐ̥] developed into Persian پاییدن payidan “protect, feed”
foot
Anglo-Saxon fōt
comes from *pōd-
developed into Sanskrit पद pad
ford (see “fare”)
Anglo-Saxon ford
comes from *pr̥tu- [pr̩tʰu]
developed into Sanskrit पिपर्ति piparti “bring over”


*pr̥tu- [pr̩tʰu] also developed into Persian and Urdu پل pul “bridge”
former (see “first”)
Anglo-Saxon forma
comes from *prh₂-mó- [pʰrɐmo], earlier [pʰr̩ħmo]
developed into
Lithuanian pirmo
four, Scots fowre
Anglo-Saxon fēower
comes from *kʷetwṓr-
developed into Ukrainian чоти́ри chotiri


*kʷetwṓr- also developed into Sanskrit चतुर् chatur


*kʷetwṓr- also developed into Persian چهار chahar
friend
Anglo-Saxon frēond
comes from *priH-eh₂- [pʰri:ɐ:], earlier [pʰriheħ] developed into Kurdish ئافراندن‎ afrandin “create”


*priH-eh₂- [pʰri:ɐ:] also developed into Sanskrit प्रीणाति priinaati “to please”


*priH-eh₂- [pʰri:ɐ:] also developed into Bosnian prijatelj “friend”
full
Proto-Germanic *fulla
comes from *plh₁-nó- [pl̩n —]
developed into Persian پر pur


*plh₁-nó- [pl̩n —] also developed into Sanskrit पृणाति prnaati “fill”


Variant form *pleh₁-nó- developed into Latin plenus
gander (see “goose”)
Anglo-Saxon gan(d)ra
comes from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] developed into Urdu ہنس hans
Proto-Germanic *ganzô
*ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] also developed into Latin anser “duck”
gang
Proto-Germanic *gang
comes from *ǵʰengʰ- developed into Sanskrit जङ्घा janghaa “leg”


*ǵʰengʰ- also developed into Romani chang “knee”


*ǵʰengʰ- also developed into Urdu ٹانگ taang “leg”
geese (see “goose”)
Anglo-Saxon gēs
from earlier *[gœ̅s]
comes from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] developed into Urdu ہنس hans
ghastly (see “aghast”)
Anglo-Saxon gæst
comes from *ǵʰois-d-o- developed into Persian زشت‎ zesht “ugly”
ghost
Anglo-Saxon gast
Proto-Germanic *gaist
also comes from *ǵʰois-d-o-


glad
Anglo-Saxon glæd
comes from *gʰleh₂dʰ- [gʱla:dʱ], earlier [gʱleɐdʱ], [gʱleħdʱ] developed into Bosnian gladak “smooth”


The derived form *gʰlh₂dʰ-ro- [gʱlɐdʱro] developed into Latin, Spanish and Italian glabro
glee
Anglo-Saxon gleo(w)
Proto-Germanic *gliw(a)
comes from *gʰlei-. The related form * gʰleu-
developed into Bosnian glumiti “act, pretend”
go
Middle English gon
comes from *ǵʰeh₁- [g̟ʱe:]
developed into Sanskrit जहाति jahaati “abandon, go away from”
Anglo-Saxon gān
The derived form *ǵʰeh₁-ro [g̟ʱe:ro] developed into Ancient Greek χήρα khera “person left behind, widow”
gold (see “yellow”)
Proto-Germanic *gulda
comes from *ǵʰlh₃-to- [g̟ʱl̩t—]. The related form *ǵʰelh₃- [g̟ʱel—] developed into Persian زرد zard “yellow”


*ǵʰelh₃- [g̟ʱel—] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian zelena “green”


The derived form *ǵʰlh₃-ros [g̟ʱlo̥ros] developed into Ancient Greek χλωρός khloros “yellowy-green” (as in chlorine)
good
Anglo-Saxon gōd
comes from *gʰodʰ-eh₂- [gʱodʱa:] developed into Sanskrit गध्य gadhya “to seize”
goose (see “gander”, “geese”)
comes from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] developed into Urdu ہنس hans
gosling
Anglo-Saxon gōs-ling
also comes from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns], which also developed into Latin anser
groom
Anglo-Saxon guma
comes from *dʰǵʰm-on-
developed into Pashto ځمکه‎ dzmaka “earth”
hale (see “whole”)
Anglo-Saxon hāl
comes from *koi-l-
developed into Bosnian cijelo “all”
hall
Anglo-Saxon heall
comes from *ḱel- [cel]
developed into Sanskrit शाला shaala
hang
Anglo-Saxon hangian
comes from *ḱónk-e-
developed into Sanskrit शङ्क shanka “doubt”


*ḱónk-e- also developed into Hittite 𒅗𒀀𒀭𒆠 kaanki
hangnail (see “English”)
Proto-Germanic *angwu-
comes from *h₂emǵʰ-u- [ħaŋgʱu] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian uzaknarrow”
hare
Anglo-Saxon hara
comes from *ḱh₂s-en- [kɐsən] developed into Sanskrit शश shasha


*ḱh₂s-en- [kʰasən] also developed into European Romani shoshoi


*ḱh₂s-en- [kʰasən] also developed into Latin canus “white”
harrow (see “shear”)
Anglo-Saxon hearwa
comes from *ker-p
developed into Urdu کرپان krpaan “sword”
harvest
Proto-Germanic *harbist
also comes from *ker-p also developed into Punjabi ਕਿਰਪਾਨ kirpaan, the dagger worn by Sikhs
hart (see “horn”)
Anglo-Saxon heorot
comes from *ḱer-h₂. The derived form *ḱor-h₂ developed into Lithuanian karvė “cow”


*ḱor-h₂ also developed into Ukrainian корова korova “cow”
have
Anglo-Saxon habban
comes from *kh₂p-éh₁- [kapé:]
developed into Sanskrit कपटी kapati “holding” (as much as can be held in the two hands joined)


The root *kh₂p- [kap] developed into Albanian kap “grab, catch”


*kh₂p- [kap] also developed into Ancient Greek κάπτω kapto “gulp”
head
Anglo-Saxon hēafod
comes from *kh₂p-ut- [kɐput] continued almost unchanged into Latin caput


A related form, *kh₂p-ol- [kɐpol] developed into Sanskrit and Nepali कपाल kapaal “skull”


*kh₂p-ol- [kɐpol] also passed (by borrowing from Sanskrit) into Japanese 瓦 kawara “roof tile”
heart, Scots hert
Anglo-Saxon heort
comes from *ḱerd [k̟ʲerd]
developed into Hindi हृदय hrday
heaven (see “edge”)
Anglo-Saxon heofon
comes from *h₂ḱ-mon- [ħak̟ʲmon], from *h₂eḱ-mon- [ħek̟ʲmon] developed into Persian آسمان asman “sky”


*h₂eḱ-mon- [ħek̟ʲmon] also developed into Lithuanian akmuõ “stone”


*h₂eḱ-mon- [ħek̟ʲmon] also developed into Ancient Greek ἄκμων akmon “anvil, meteoric stone, meteorite”
herd
Anglo-Saxon heord
comes from *ḱerdʰ-eh₂- [k̟ʲeɾdʱeɐ], earlier [k̟ʲerdʱeħ] developed into
Bosnian krda


*ḱerdʰ-eh₂- also developed into Slovenian čreda
hew
Anglo-Saxon hēawan
comes from *kóuh₂-e- [kóuɐ̥], earlier [kóuħe] developed into Bosnian kovač “smith”
high
Anglo-Saxon hēah
comes from *kóuk-o-
developed into Bosnian kuka “hook”
hold
Anglo-Saxon healdan
comes from *kel-
developed into Sanskrit कलयति kalayati “counts”
home
Anglo-Saxon hām
comes from *ḱoim-os, a form of *ḱei-
developed into Sanskrit शी shi “to lie down”
honey
Anglo-Saxon hunig
comes from *kn̥h₂-onk-o-s [kn̩aoŋk̟os]
developed into Hindi कनक kanak “gold”


The related form *kn̥h₂-ko- [knɐko] developed into Doric Greek κνακός knakos “safflower” (Mycenaean Greek 𐀏𐀙𐀒 ka-na-ko)
hook
Anglo-Saxon hoc
comes from *kéh₃go- [kɔgɔ], derived from *kéh₃ngo- [kɔŋgɔ] developed into Persian چنگ chang “claw”
= Proto-Germanic *hok-
*kéh₃go- [kɔgɔ] developed into Russian ко́готь kogot
horn (see “hart”)
Anglo-Saxon horn
comes from *ḱr̥-n- [k̟ʲr̩n]. The derived form *ḱr-n-go- developed into Sanskrit शृङ्ग shrnga. The Persian cognate of this word, سرنا sorna, a musical instrument, was borrowed into Chinese as 唢呐 (Mandarin suǒnà).


*ḱr̥-n- [k̟ʲr̩n] also developed into Luwian 𒍪𒌨𒉌 zurni


The root *ḱer- developed into Northern (Kurmanji) Kurdish ser and Urdu سر ser “head”


*ḱer- also developed into Armenian սար sar “peak, mountain”; Persian and Pashto سر sar “head”
hound
Anglo-Saxon hund
comes from *ḱu-on- developed into Sanskrit श्वन् shwan


*ḱu-on- also developed into Armenian շուն shun
hue
Proto-Germanic *heu
comes from *ḱieh₁- [k̟ʲe:], earlier [k̟ʲeh] developed into Persian سیاه siyah “black”
hundred (see “ten”)
Anglo-Saxon hund
comes from *ḱm̥tóm [k̟ʲm̩tóm], earlier *dḱm̥-tó- [dk̟ʲm̩tó]. *dḱm̥t- “ten” developed into Iron Ossetian сӕдӕ shada, which further developed into Digor Ossetian сӕдӕ sada


*dḱm̥t- also developed into Persian صد sad
I
Anglo-Saxon ic
comes from *h₁éǵh₂ [heɟɐ̥] developed into Ossetian æз az


*h₁éǵh₂ [heɟɐ̥] also developed into Pashto زه‎ zuh [zə]
ice
Anglo-Saxon īs
comes from *h₁éiH-so [heiso].
The related form *h₁eiH-ko- [heiko]
developed into Urdu یخ yakh
is (see “am”)
Anglo-Saxon is
comes from *h₁és-ti [ésti] developed into Sanskrit अस्ति asti


*h₁és-ti [ésti] also developed into Persian است ast
jowl
Anglo-Saxon ceafl
comes from
*ǵebʰ- [ʤeb]
developed into
Urdu جبڑا jabra
kill (see “quell”)
Anglo-Saxon cwellan
comes from *gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian žaoka “stinger, barb”


*gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] developed into Ancient Greek βέλεμνον belemnon, “javelin, dart”
kin
Anglo-Saxon cyn
comes from *ǵenh₁- [g̟ʲenə]
developed into Sanskrit जनति janati “give birth”
kind
Anglo-Saxon cynd
also comes from *ǵenh₁- [g̟ʲenə] also developed into Persian زادن‎ zadan “give birth”


*ǵenh₁- [g̟ʲenə] also developed into Ancient Greek γενέτα geneta “birth”
knee
Anglo-Saxon cnēo
comes from *ǵn-eu- [g̟nəo]. The related form *ǵonu- developed into Sanskrit जानु jaanu


*ǵonu- also developed into Urdu زانو zanu
know (see “can”)
Anglo-Saxon cnāwan
comes from *ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] developed into Urdu جاننا jaannaa


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Lithuanian žinau


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Balochi زان zan


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Ancient Greek γνώση gnose
land
Anglo-Saxon land
comes from *lendʰ- [lendʱ] developed into Polish Lędzianie “Lendians”
lean
Anglo-Saxon hleonian
comes from *ḱli-n- [k̟li:n]. The related form *ḱlei-
developed into Sanskrit श्रयते shrayate
leave over
Anglo-Saxon læ̅f
comes from *loip-. The related form *leip- developed into Polish lepić “mould, be sticky”


*leip- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian ljepilo “glue”


*leip- also developed into Greek λιπαρός liparos oily”
lend (see “loan”)
Anglo-Saxon læ̅nan
comes from *leikʷ- “to leave”
developed into Persian ریختن rikhtan “pour, spill, sprinkle”
let
Anglo-Saxon læ̅tan
comes from *leh₁d- [le:d]
developed into Albanian lodh “to tire”
lick
Anglo-Saxon liccian
comes from *liǵʰ-
developed into Persian لیس lis
lie down
Anglo-Saxon licgan
comes from *légʰyo-
developed into Bosnian ležati lezhati
to tell a lie
Anglo-Saxon lēogan
comes from *léugʰ- developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian lagati
light (brightness)
Scots licht
= Middle English liht
comes from *leuk- [lɘʊk] developed into Balochi روچ roch “day”
Anglo-Saxon leoht
*leuk- also developed into Sanskrit रोचते rochate


*leuk- also developed into Persian روشنی roshani “brightness”, which was borrowed into Urdu as روشنی roshni


*leuk- also developed into Northern (Kurmanji) Kurdish roj rozh “Sun, day”


*leuk- also developed into Tajik рӯз ruz “day”, Persian روز ruz, as in نوروز nowruz “New [Year's] Day” (see “new”)
light (weight)
Anglo-Saxon leoht
comes from *h₁lengʷʰ-to- [e̥lʲɐŋgʷʰ—]
developed into Sanskrit लघु laghu


*h₁lengʷʰ- also developed into Ancient Greek ἐλαχύς elakhüs
lip
Proto-Germanic *lep-
comes from *leb-
developed into Persian لب lab
listen (see “loud”)
Anglo-Saxon hlystan
comes from *ḱleu-s [klɐʊs] developed into Sanskrit श्रोष्यति shroshyati “will hear”


*ḱleu-s also developed into Bosnian slušati slushati


*ḱleu-s continued almost unchanged into Lithuanian klausyti
loan (see “lend”)
Old Norse lán
comes from *loikʷ-, a form of *leikʷ- “to leave”, which developed into Persian ریختن rikhtan “pour, spill, sprinkle”
lock
Anglo-Saxon lucan
comes from *leug-. A related form, *lug-no-s
developed into Sanskrit and Hindi रुग्ण rugna “bent”
long, Scots lang
Anglo-Saxon lang
comes from *dlonǵʰ- developed into Persian دراز deraz
loud (see “listen”)
Scots lood
Anglo-Saxon hlud
comes from *ḱleu-t [klɐʊt]
developed into Sanskrit श्रुत shruta “heard”
love
Northern English [ɫʊv]
Anglo-Saxon lufu
comes from *lubʰ-, a form of *leubʰ-
continued almost unchanged into Sanskrit लुभ्यति lubhyati
lust
Northern English [ɫʊst]
comes from *leh₂s- [lɐ:s]
developed into Hindi अनभिलषित anabhilashit “undesired”
Anglo-Saxon lust
*leh₂s- [lɐ:s] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian laskati “flatter”


*leh₂s- [lɐ:s] also developed into Latin lascivus
maggot (see “moth”)
Middle English maddock
comes from *mot- developed into Belarusian мотыль matil “butterfly”


*mot- also developed into Persian ملخ malakh “locust, grasshopper”
man comes from *mánu-s
developed into Bengali মানুষ manush
mane
Proto-Germanic *manō
comes from *mon-eh₂- [monɐ̤ɦ] developed into Marathi मान maan “nape”
many
Anglo-Saxon maniġ
comes from *monogʰo
developed into Bosnian mnogo
march (frontier region)
Scots mairch
comes from *morǵ-eh₂ [morg̟ʲɐ:]
developed into Persian مرز marz “border”
Anglo-Saxon mearc

*morǵ-eh₂ [morg̟ʲɐ:] also developed into Latin margo
may (see “might”)
Anglo-Saxon mæġ
comes from *mogʰ- developed into Sanskrit मघ magha “power”
mead (honey wine)
Anglo-Saxon mæ̅d
comes from *medʰ-u-
developed almost unchanged into
Lithuanian medus “honey”


*medʰ-u- also developed into Sanskrit मधु madhu
meal (ground food) (see “mould”) comes from *melh₁-uo- [meləwɔ]. *melh₁- developed into Persian مالیدن malidan “rub” 
Anglo-Saxon melu
*melh₁- also developed into Sanskrit मृद् mrd “rub”


*melh₁- also developed into Urdu ملنا malna “rubbing”
mere (lake)
Anglo-Saxon mere
comes from *mor-i- [moɾi] developed into Bosnian more “sea”
merry (see “mirth”)
Proto-Germanic *murgu
comes from *mrǵʰ-u- developed into Sanskrit मुहु muhu “short”
mete out (see “empty”)
Anglo-Saxon (ġe)met(an)
comes from *méd-e- developed into Armenian միտք ‎ mitk’ “thought”
mice (see “mouse”)
Anglo-Saxon mȳs
comes from *muh₁s- [mu:s] developed into Persian موش mush
mid
Proto-Germanic *medja
comes from *medʰ-io- [medʱjo]
developed into Sanskrit मध्य madhya, that developed into Hindi मध्य madhye
might (see “may”)
Scots micht = Middle English miht
Anglo-Saxon meaht
comes from
*mogʰ- developed into
Sanskrit मघ magha “power”
milk
Anglo-Saxon meolc
comes from *h₂melǵ- [ħmelg], [ɐ̥melg]
developed into Sanskrit मर्जति marjati “clean, wipe”


*h₂melǵ- also developed into Ancient Greek ἀμέλγω amelgo
mind
Anglo-Saxon mynd
comes from *mn-ti-, a form of *men-, which
developed into Bengali মানা mana “accept, obey”
mingle
Anglo-Saxon menge
comes from *monk-, a form of *menk-, which
developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian mek “soft”


*menk- also developed into Persian آمیختن amekhtan “mix, mingle, blend, couple”


*menk- also developed into Sanskrit मचते machate “be arrogant”
mirth (see “merry”)
Proto-Germanic *murgu
comes from *mrǵʰ-u-
developed into Sanskrit मुहु muhu “short”
mist
Proto-Germanic *mikstaz
comes from *h₃migʰ- [ŏmigʱ]
developed into Persian مه meh


*h₃migʰ- also developed into Sanskrit मेघ megha


The suffixed form *h₃migʰ-leh₂ developed into Modern Greek ομίχλη omikhli


*h₃migʰ-leh₂ also developed into Siraiki mẽghla
month
Anglo-Saxon mōnaþ
comes from *méh₁-not [me:not]

moon
Anglo-Saxon mōna
comes from *méh₁=nos [me:nos]
developed into Persian, Balochi and Urdu ماه mah


*méh₁nos [me:nos] also developed into Latin mensis
morn (see “tomorrow”)
Anglo-Saxon morgen
comes from *mrk [mr̩:k]
developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian and Slovenian mrak dark, dusk”
morrow (see “tomorrow”) also comes from *mrk [mr̩:k]

moss
comes from *meus-a-. A related form *mus-o-
developed into Ukrainian мох mokh
(Anglo-Saxon meos is hardly changed from PIE *meus-.)
*mus-o- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian mahovina
moth (see “maggot”)
Proto-Germanic *muþþa/ōn-
comes from *mot-
developed into Belarusian мотыль matil “butterfly”


*mot- also developed into Persian ملخ malakh “locust, grasshopper”
mother
Anglo-Saxon mōdor
comes from *meh₂tḗr [maté:r], earlier [meħté:r] developed into Persian مادر modar
mo(u)ld (see “meal”)
Anglo-Saxon molde
comes from *ml̥h₂-téh₂ [ml̩:teħ], a form of *melh₂-. The derived form *ml̥h₂-tó-
developed into Sanskrit and Hindi मृदा mrda “soil, clay”


*ml̥h₂-téh₂ [ml̩:teħ] developed into Ancient Greek μάλθα malta “a soft mixture of wax and pitch”
mourn
Anglo-Saxon murnan
comes from *mer , *smer
developed into Sanskrit स्मरति smarati “remember”


*smer also developed into Persian شمردن shemordan “to count”
mouse (see “mice”)
(Anglo-Saxon mūs is hardly changed from PIE *muh₁s-.)
comes from *muh₁s- [mu:s]
developed into Persian موش mush
much, Scots mickle
Anglo-Saxon micel
comes from *meǵh₂- [megɐ]
developed into Northern (Kurmanji) Kurdish mazin


*meǵh₂- [megɐ] developed into Ancient Greek μέγας megas
murder
Anglo-Saxon morþor
comes from *mŕ-to- [mr̩to], a form of *mer-
developed into Persian مردن mordan to die”
nail
Anglo-Saxon næġel
comes from *h₃nog(ʷ)ʰ- [ŏ̥nogʷʱ]
developed into Persian ناخن nakhon, borrowed into Urdu ناخن nakhun


*h₃nog(ʷ)ʰ- [ŏ̥nogʷʱ] also developed into Ancient Greek ὄνυξ onuks, Modern Greek νύχι nishi
name
Anglo-Saxon nama
comes from *h₃nh̥₃men [ŏ̥nómen] developed into Persian نام naam, borrowed into Urdu نام naam


*h₃nh̥₃men [ŏ̥nómen] also developed into Modern Greek όνομα onoma
narrow
Anglo-Saxon nearu
comes from *ner [neɾ̥] developed into Sanskrit नृत्य nrtya “dance”
navel
Anglo-Saxon nafel
comes from *h₃nobʰ-l-on- [onóbʰlon]. *h₃nobʰ- developed into Sanskrit नभ्य nabhya


*h₃nobʰ- also developed into Persian ناف naf


*h₃nobʰ-l-on- [onóbʰlon] also developed into Modern Greek ομφαλός omfalos
nest (see “sit”)
Proto-Germanic *nista-
comes from *ni-sd-o [nizdo], a derived form of *sed-, developed into Sanskrit नीड niida, that developed into Hindi नीड़ niir


*ni-sd-o [nizdo] also developed into Pashto ناست nast“seated, sitting”


*ni-sd-o [nizdo] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian gnijezdo
new
Anglo-Saxon nīwe
comes from *neu-io-
developed into Urdu نیا nea


*neu-io- also developed into Persian نو no, and نوروز nowruz “new light” (New Year's Day). See “light”.
night, Scots nicht
Anglo-Saxon niht
comes from *nokʷt- developed into Sanskrit नक्तम् naktam


*nokʷt-s also developed into Lithuanian naktis  
nine
Anglo-Saxon nigon
comes from *h₁néun [e̥néun]
developed into Persian نُه noh


*h₁néun also developed into Ancient and Modern Greek εννέα ennéa


*h₁néun also developed into Armenian ինը ina
nit
Anglo-Saxon hnitu
comes from
*ḱh₃nid- [kɵníd]
developed into
Armenian անիծ anits


*ḱh₃nid- [kɵníd] also developed into Modern Greek κόνιδα konitha
nose
Anglo-Saxon nosu
comes from *nh̥₂-s-eh₂- [nɐ̥sɐ̥:]
continued almost unchanged into Punjabi ਨਾਸ naas “nostril”
nostril, Anglo-Saxon nos-þy̅rl also comes from *nh̥₂-s- also developed into Hindi नाक naak


*nh̥₂-s- also developed into Romani nak
now
Scots noo
comes from *nu
continued almost unchanged into Sanskrit नु nu
off (see “after”)
Scots aff
comes from *h₂ep-ó [apó], earlier [ħapó] developed into Sanskrit अप apa


*h₂ep-ó [apó] continued almost unchanged into Modern Greek απο apo
one (see “a”, “an”, “any”)
Middle English oon
comes from
*h₁oi-no-s [oinos] developed into Albanian një
Anglo-Saxon ān
Proto-Germanic *aina

The variant form *h₁ói-kos [hoikos]  developed into Mittanian aika, borrowed into Hurrian 𒀀𒄿𒅗 aika


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos]  also developed into Assamese এক ek


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos]  also developed into Nepali एक ek


The variant form *h₁ói-wos [hoiwos]  developed into Pashto یو yau


*h₁ói-wos [hoiwos]  also developed into Ancient Greek οἶος hoios “only”
ore
Anglo-Saxon ār
comes from *h₂éi-es- [ħʌĭes] developed into Sanskrit अयस् ayas


*h₂éi-es- [ħʌĭes]  also developed into Latin aes
other
Anglo-Saxon ōþer
comes from *h₂en-tero- [antero]
developed into Sanskrit अन्तर antara


*h₂en-tero- also developed into Lithuanian antra “second”


*h₂en-tero- also developed into Latvian Otrdiena Tuesday” i.e. “second day


*h₂en-tero- also developed into Latin alter
otter (see “water”, “wet”) comes from *ud-r-o- (the stem of which, *ud-, is derived from *wed-)
developed into Sanskrit उद्र udra


*ud-r-o- developed (almost identically) into Lithuanian udra
out
Scots oot
comes from *ūd
developed into Classical Persian prefix ز-‎ zu-
oven comes from *h₂up-no, from *h₂ukʷ- [ħukʷ—] developed into Sanskrit उखा ukha
over (see “up”) comes from *h₁uper- [hʉpeɾ]
Comparative of *h₁upo “up”
developed into Sanskrit उपरि upari


*h₁uper- also developed into Persian ابر abar
owe comes from *(h₂e-)h₂oik- [ɐħɑik̟ʲ]. The related form *h₂e-h₂iḱ- [ɐħik̟ʲ] developed into Sanskrit ईष्टे ishte “own”
own also comes from *(h₂e-)h₂oik- [ɐħɑik̟ʲ].

ox comes from *Huksen [ɦuksɘn]
developed into Sanskrit उक्षन् ukshan
path (see “find”) comes from Proto-Germanic *patha
a loan from Iranian *patha
The Iranian source of Proto-Germanic * patha comes from *pont-eh₁-s [ponte:s] also developed into Vedic Sanskrit पन्थासो panthaso “path”, borrowed into Bengali পন্থা pontha
queen comes from *gwen-
developed into Sanskrit ग्ना gnaa “goddess”


*gwen- also developed into Pashto جنۍ‎ jinay “girl”


*gwen- also developed into Balochi جن jan “woman”


*gwen- also developed into Bosnian žena zhena “woman”


*gwen- also developed into Persian زن zan “woman”
quell (see “kill”) comes from *gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] developed into Bosnian žaoka “sting, barb”


*gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] developed into Ancient Greek βέλεμνον belemnon, “javelin, dart”
quern comes from *gʷerh₂-nu- [gwerən—]
developed into Persian گران geran “expensive” (archaic: “heavy”)


*gʷerh₂-nu- further developed into Balochi گران graan “heavy”


*gʷerh₂- also developed into Punjabi ਗੁਰ gur “guru”, as in ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ gurdwara = gur+dwara “gateway to the gurus”; see “door”.


*gʷerh₂- also developed into Pashto ګور gurh “grave, tomb”


*gʷerh₂- (via variant form *gʷéh₂r-us) developed into Ancient Greek βάρος baros “weight”


*gʷerh₂- (via variant form *gʷréh₂-us) developed into Latin gravis “heavy”


*gʷréh₂ developed into Scottish Gaelic brà “quern”
quick comes from *gʷi-gʷh₃-(u)ó-
developed into Persian جیوه jiive “quicksilver, mercury”


*gʷi-gʷh₃-(u)ó- also developed into Lithuanian gyvo “alive”


Variant form *gʷiéh₃-uo- developed into Modern Greek ζώο zowo “animal”


Variant form *gʷih₃-uo developed into Ancient Greek βίος bios “life”


*gʷih₃-uo also developed into Latin vivo “I live”
quoth (see “bequeath”) comes from *gʷet-. Likely related to *gʷed-, which
developed into Sanskrit गदति gadati“to speak”
raw comes from *krouh₂- [kɾoʊħḁ].
Variant form *kruh₂- [kɾʊħḁ]
developed into Persian خون khun “blood”


*kruh₂- [kɾʊħḁ] also developed into Northern Kurdish xwîn khwin “blood”


Variant form *kreuh₂- [kɾeʊħ] also developed into Ancient Greek κρέας ‎kreas “flesh”


*kreuh₂- [kɾeʊħ] also developed into Sanskrit क्रविस् kravis “raw flesh”


*krouh₂- [kɾoʊħḁ] also developed into Ukrainian кров krov “blood”
reck(-less) comes from *h₂roh₁(ǵ )-eh₂- [ɐ̥ɾo:gɐ] “care” developed into Doric Greek ἀρωγά aroga, Classical Greek ἀρωγή aroge “aid”, related to ἀρήγω arego “I help”
reckon (see “right”) also comes from *h₂roh₁(ǵ )-eh₂- [ɐ̥ro:gɐ]. Possibly from *h₃rēǵ- [ŏ̥reg] “to straighten, direct”, according to Beekes.
*h₃rēǵ-
developed into Ancient Greek ὀρέγω orego “I reach out”


*h₃rēǵ- also developed into Persian راست rast “straight, right”
red comes from *h₁roudʰ- [hroʊdʱ]
developed into Sanskrit रुधिर rudhira


*h₁roudʰ- [hroʊdʱ] also developed into Ancient Greek ἐρυθρός eruthrós


Variant form *h₁reudʰ- [hrəʊdʱ] also developed into Latvian [h]ruds
reek comes from *h₁reug- [ɘ̥rɛʊg] “belch”
developed into Persian اروغ arog “belch”


*h₁reug- [ɘ̥rɛʊg] also developed into Ancient Greek ἐρεύγομαι ereúgomai “belch, vomit”


*h₁reug- [ɘ̥rɛʊg] also developed into Lithuanian raugėti “belch”
rib comes from *h₁rebʰ- [hreɛbʱ] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian rebro


*h₁rebʰ- [hreɛbʱ] also developed into Ancient Greek ἐρέφω erepho “roof”
right (see “reckon”)
Scots richt = Anglo-Saxon riht
comes from *h₃reǵ-to- [ŏregtʰo]. The related form *h₃rēǵ-h₃ón-
developed into Sanskrit राजन् raajan, राजा raja “king, ruler”


*h₃rēǵ- “to direct” also developed into Persian راست rast “straight, right”


*h₃rēǵ- “to direct” also developed into Ancient Greek ὀρέγω ‎orego “I reach out”
root comes from *urd-i-. The related form *ured-
developed into Persian ریشه risheh
rush (reed) comes from *resg [rezg]
developed into Sanskrit रज्जु rajju “rope”
salt comes from *sh₂-l-os [salos]
developed into Bosnian so


*seh₂l-s developed into Latvian sāls


*seh₂l-s also developed into Ancient Greek ἅλς hals
salve comes from *solp-. The related form *selp-
developed into Ossetian царв tsarv “clarified butter”
same (US Female)
(see “some “)
comes from *somH-o- [somo]
developed into Persian هم ham “also”
same (UK Male) from *somH-o- [somo]

sang (see “sing”, “song”) comes from *songʷʰ-o-, derived from *sengʷʰ-e- “sing, intone” developed into Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai “to narrate”
sat (see “sit”) comes from *sod-, derived from *sed- developed into Sanskrit सीदति  sidati
say comes from *sokʷ-eie. The related form *sekʷ-
developed into Sanskrit सच् sach-
sear, sere comes from *h₂sous- [ɑ̥sous], [ħsous]
developed into Persian خشک hoshk “dry”


*h₂sous- [ɑ̥sous], [ħsous] also developed into Latvian sauss “dry”


*h₂sous- [ɑ̥sous], [ħsous] also developed into Lithuanian sausas “dry”
seat (see “sit”) comes from *se:d-i-, a form of *sed- developed into Sanskrit सीदति  sidati
seed (see “sow”) comes from *seh₁-to- [se:to]. The stem *seh₁- [se:] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian sijati siyati “to sow”


The derived form *seh₁-mn [se:mn̩] developed into Latin semen “seed”


*seh₁-mn [se:mn̩] also developed into Ancient Greek ἧμᾰ hema
sell comes from *solh₁-éie-. The related form *sl̥h₁- (perhaps) developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian slati “to send”


The related form *selh₁- developed into Ancient Greek ἑλεῖν helein
set (see “nest”, “sit”) comes from *sed-
developed into Sanskrit सीदति sidati
seven comes from *septm
developed into Sanskrit सप्तन् saptan


*septm also developed into Persian هفت haft
sew comes from *syuh₁- [sju:]
developed into Sanskrit सीव्यति sivyati


*syuh₁- [sju:] also developed into Urdu سینا siina


*syuh₁- [sju:] also developed into Lithuanian siūti
shear (see “harrow”) comes from *s-ker-. The derived form *ker-mn developed into Persian چرم charm “leather”
shoot comes from *s-keud-. The derived form *skud-to-s
developed into Persian چست chost “quick”


The root *keud- developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian kidati “to tear/break”
shove comes from *s-keubʰ-. The related form *ks(e)ubʰ-
developed into Persian آشوب aashub “chaos”
show comes from *s-keuh₁- [skou]. The derived form *kouh₁-is [ko:his]
developed into Marathi कवि kavi “poet”


*kouh₁- also developed into Ancient Greek κοέω koeo “be aware of”
sing (see “sang”, “song”) comes from *sengʷʰ-e-

developed into Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai “narrate”
sister comes from *swesor-
developed into Sanskrit स्वसृ svasr


*swesor- also developed into Persian خواهر‎ khohar
sit (see “set”) comes from *sed- developed into Sanskrit सीदति  sidati
six comes from *sweḱs
developed into Pashto شپږ shpag, southern dialect shpazh


*sweḱs also developed into Persian شش shesh, shish
small comes from *smol-
developed into Bosnian malo
smile comes from *smei-
developed into Sanskrit स्मयते smayate
smirk also comes from *smei- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian smejati
smoke comes from *smeugh-e [smoʊg̟ʱe]
developed into Armenian մուխ mukh
snow
Scots snaw
comes from *snéigʷʰ-
developed into Sanskrit स्नेह sneha “moisture, oiliness”


*snéigʷʰ- also developed into Lithuanian sniegas
some (see “same”) comes from *smH-o- [sm:o], a form of *somH-o- [somo], which developed into Persian هم ham “also”
son comes from *suh₁-nus [su:nus]
developed into Sanskrit सूनु sunu


*suh₁-nus [su:nus] continued almost unchanged into Lithuanian sūnus
song (see “sang”, “sing”) comes from *songʷʰ-o-, derived from *sengʷʰ-e- “sing, intone” developed into Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai “to narrate”
soot (see “sit”) comes from *so:d-o-, a derived form of * sed-. *so:d-o - developed into Ukrainian сажа sazha
sore comes from *sh₂ei-ro- [sairo], a form of *sh₂ei- [sai] “afflict, bind” developed into Ossetian хид khid “bridge”
sorry also comes from *sh₂ei-ro- [sairo]. *sh₂ei- [sai] also developed into
Latvian saiklis “string, band, connection”
sorrow comes from *surgʰ-eh₂- [surgʱa]
developed into Sanskrit सूर्क्षति surkshati “worry”


*surgʰ-eh₂- [surgʱa] also developed into Archaic Bulgarian срага sraga
sour comes from *súh₁-ro- [su:ro]
developed into Siraiki شور shor, Persian شور shur “salty”


*súh₁-ro- [su:ro] also developed into Lithuanian sūris “cheese”


*súh₁-ro- [su:ro] also developed into Bosnian sir “cheese”
sow (see “swine”) comes from
*suh₁-. The derived form *suh₁-kas developed into Balochi ہوک huuk “pig”


*suh₁- developed into Ancient Greek ὗς s


*suh₁- developed into Latin sus
to sow (see “seed”) comes from *seh₁- [se:] developed into Slovenian sejati seyati


*seh₁- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian sijati siyati
spare (extra, excess) comes from *sph̥₁-ro- [spɘro]
developed into Sanskrit स्फिर sphira “fat, thick”


The full form *speh₁-ro- [spɘ:ro] developed into Ancient Greek σπαρνός sparnós, Modern Greek σπανός spanós


*speh₁-ro- [spɘ:ro] also developed into Latin spes
spark (see “spring”) comes from *s-pérgʰ- [spɘrgʱ] developed into Pashto سپرغۍ sparghay


The related form *pérgʰ- [pɘrgʱ] developed into Sanskrit पर्जन्य Parjanya “(god of) rainfall”, Marathi Parzhanya
Icelandic Fjörgynn, a thunder god
also comes from
*pérǵʰ- [pɘrgʱ] also developed into Lithuanian Perkūnas “(god of) thunder”
spell comes from *spel-o-
developed into Armenian առասպել arraspel
“myth, legend”
spew comes from *spti̯eu̯h₁- [sptju:]
developed into Persian تف tuf “spit”


*spti̯eu̯h₁- [sptju:] also developed into Ancient Greek πτύω ptuo “spit out”
spring (see “spark”) comes from *spré-n-gʰ-e-, derived from *sprégʰ-, a variant of *s-pérgʰ- [spɘrgʱ]. Another variant , *s-prgʰ- developed into Sanskrit स्फूर्ज sphurja “be eager, strive after, desire”


*s-prgʰ- also developed into Pashto sprəž sprazh “blossom”
staff (see “stand”) comes from *sth₂-bʰo- [stɐbʰo] developed into Persian ستبر setabr “thick, stout”


*sth₂-bʰo- [stɐbʰo] also developed into Lithuanian stãbas “pole, idol”


*sth₂-bʰo- [stɐbʰo] also developed into Bulgarian стобор stobor “picket fence, paling”
stair comes from *stéiǵʰ-e-
developed into Sanskrit स्तिघ्नोति stighnoti “step up”


*stéiǵʰ-e- also developed into Ukrainian стигнути stizhnuti


*stéiǵʰ-e- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian dostignuti “catch up”


*stéiǵʰ-e- also developed into Albanian shteg “path”
stake (see “thatch”) comes from *s-teg-
developed into Sanskrit स्थगति sthagati “to cover”


*s-teg- further developed into Punjabi ਠੱਗ thag “rogue, cheat”. Borrowed into English as thug.
stall (see “stand”) comes from *sth₂-dʰlo- [stɐdʱlo] developed into Hindi स्थल sthal “floor, platform, hill”
stand (see “staff”) comes from *sth₂-énti [stɐnti], derived from *steh₂- [steɐħ], which
developed into Persian ایستادن istaadan “stand up”


*sth₂-énti [stɐnti] also developed into Ukrainian стати stati “become”
star (see “ash”) comes from *h₂s-tér-on- [ɐstéron], derived from *h₂stér [ħɐ̥stér], which developed into Balochi اِستار istar


*h₂stér also developed into Northern Kurdish astirə


*h₂stér also developed into Persian ستاره sitare


*h₂stér also developed into Pashto ستوری storay


*h₂stér also developed into Ancient Greek ἀστήρ aster


*h₂stér also developed into Armenian աստղ astr
stead (see “stall”, “stand”) comes from *sth₂-ti-, derived from *stéh₂-ti-, which
developed into Sanskrit स्थिति sthiti “standing, residence, situation”


*stéh₂-ti- also developed into Ancient Greek στάσις stasis “standing, place, condition”
steer (see “stall”, “stand”) comes from *stéh₂-ur [stɐ:r], earlier [steħʊr] (from *stéh₂-) ~ *sth₂-ur “pole” developed into Persian ستون sutuun “column”
summer comes from *semh₁- [sɘmħɐ̥]
developed into Sanskrit समा samaa


*semh₁- [sɘmħɐ̥] also developed into Armenian ամառ amar
sun comes from *séh₂un- [sɑʊɵn], a variant of *séh₂ul- [sɐʊɫ]. The derived form *sóh₂wl̩ [sɒʊɫ] developed into Sanskrit स्वर् svar


*sóh₂wl̩ further developed into Urdu سورج suraj


*sóh₂wl̩ also developed into Persian خور khor “sunrise, east”, as in the place-name خراسان Khorasan “Eastern Province”
swear (see “answer”) comes from *s-wór- [swor] developed into Sanskrit स्वर svara “voice, sound, vowel”



also developed into Ukrainian свари́ти swariti “argue, berate”
sweat comes from *swoid-
developed into Sanskrit स्वेदते sveedate


*swoid- also developed into Balochi ہید‎ hed


*swoid- also developed into Iron Ossetian хид khid
sweet comes from *sweh₂d-u-s [swa:dus]
developed into Sanskrit स्वादु swaadu


*sweh₂d-u-s [swa:dus] also developed into Balochi واد waad “salt”


*sweh₂d-u-s [swa:dus] also developed into Latin suavis, borrowed into English as suave
swine (see “sow”) comes from *suh₁-īno- [su:hi:no], derived from *suh₁-. Another derived form, *suh₁-kas developed into Balochi ہوک‎ huuk “pig”


*suh₁-kas also developed into Persian خوک‎ khuuch
tame (see “timber”) comes from *dem-
developed into Persian دام dam “livestock”


*dem- also developed into Sanskrit दाम्यति damyati “to tame”
to tear comes from *derH-
developed into Persian دریدن daridan “tear, ravage”


*derH- also developed into Balochi دِر‎ dir


*derH- also developed into Lithuanian dìrti
ten (see “hundred”) comes from *déḱm̩-
developed into Proto-Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit दश dasha


*déḱm̩- also developed into Iron Ossetian dash


*déḱm̩- also developed into Digor Ossetian дæс das and Urdu دس‎ das


*déḱm̩- also developed into Pashto لس‎ las


*déḱm̩- also developed into
Old Persian *daθa datha


*déḱm̩- also developed into Balochi دہ dah and Persian ده dah


 The suffixed form *déḱm̩-t- developed into Lithuanian dešimt


*déḱm̩-t- also developed into
Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian deset
that (see “there”) comes from *to-d
developed into Sanskrit तद् tad
thatch (see “stake”) comes from *teg- developed into Latin toga “toga, covering”


The related form *s-teg- developed into Sanskrit स्थगति sthagati “to cover”


*s-teg- continued almost unchanged into Ancient Greek στέγος stegos “roof”


*s-teg- also developed into Polish stóg “roof”


*s-teg- also developed into Ukrainian стіг stigh “haystack”
thee (see “thou”) comes from *te-ge, derived from *tu-ǵe, derived from *tuh₂ [tuɐħ]. The inflected form *tuh₂-om [tuaom] developed into Sanskrit त्वम् twam
there (see “that”) comes from *to-r
developed into Marathi तर tar “so”


*to-r also developed into Sanskrit तर्हि tarhi “then”


*to-r also developed into Nepali तर tara “but”
thin comes from *tn̥h₂-u- [tn̩:u]. Inflected form *tn̥h₂-u-kos
developed into Persian تنک tunuk


*tn̥h₂-u-kos also developed into Balochi تنک tanak


*tn̥h₂-u-kos also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian tanak


*tn̥h₂-u-kos also developed into Bulgarian тънък tuhnuhk
third comes from *tri-tih₁o- [triti:o], from earlier [triti:ho] developed into Sanskrit तृतीय trtiya


*tri-tih₁o- [triti:o]  also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian treći
thirst comes from *tr̥s-tu. A different inflected form, *tr̥s-no--,
developed into Persian تشنگی teshne “thirsty”


*tr̥s-no- also developed into Balochi تُنَّگ tunnag “frog, thirsty one”
thistle comes from *teig
continued almost unchanged into Balochi teg “sharp”


*teig developed into Persian تیز tiiz, borrowed into Urdu تیز tiiz
thorn comes from *trno [tr̩nõ]
developed into Sanskrit तृण trnam



*trno further developed into Bengali তৃণ trino


*trno also developed into Bosnian trn
thorough (see “through”) comes from *terh₂-kʷe [terɐ̥kwe], from *terh₂-. The derived form *trh₂- [trħa] developed into Sanskrit तिरस् tiras
thou (see “thee”) comes from *tuh₂ [tuɐ], from earlier [tuɐ̥], [tuħ] developed into Persian تو tu, Tajik ту tu


*tuh₂ [tuɐ] further developed into Balochi تئو tau


*tuh₂ [tuɐ] further developed into Digor Ossetian du, Iron Ossetian ды de
three comes from *trei-. The masculine nominative form *trei-es
developed into Sanskrit त्रयस् trayas


*trei- also developed into Sanskrit त्रि tri


*trei- also developed into Romani trin


*trei- also developed into Sindhi ٽي te


*trei- also developed into Balochi سے se
through (see “thorough”) comes from *terh₂-kʷe [terɐ̥kwe], from *terh₂-. The derived form *trh₂- [trħa] developed into Sanskrit तिरस् tiras


*trh₂-nts, suffixed form of *trh₂ [trħa] developed into Latin trans
thunder comes from *tenh₂- [tenɐ̥]
developed into Persian تندر tondar “thunder, roar”


Prefixed form *s-tenh₂- [stenɐ] developed into Ancient and Modern Greek στενάζω stenazo “groan”
tide (see “time”) comes from *dh₂i-tí- [dɐití], a form of *dh₂i- [dɐi] developed into Albanian ditë “day”
timber (see “tame”) comes from *dem-
developed into Sanskrit दम dama “house”


*dem-  also developed into Bosnian dom “home”
time (see “tide”) comes from *dh₂i-mon [dɐimon], a form of *dh₂i- [dɐi] developed into Kurdish dem
to comes from *do
is the same as Bosnian do
tomorrow (see “morn”, “morrow”)
Anglo-Saxon morgen
comes from *mrk [mr̩:k] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian, and Slovenian mrak “dark, dusk”
tongue [tʌŋ ] comes from *dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ]
developed into Sanskrit जिह्वा jihvaa
tongue [tɒŋ ] comes from *dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ] also developed into Romani chib


*dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ] also developed into Pashto ژبه‎ zhaba


*dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ] also developed into Latin lingua
tooth (see “eat”) comes from *h₁d-ónt- eater” (Ringe) or *h₃d-ónt- (Kroonen) [ɵ̥dont]
developed into
Ancient Greek ὀδόντος odontos


*h₁dónt- also developed into Lithuanian dantu


*h₁dónt- also developed into Sanskrit दन्त danta


*h₁dónt- also developed into Siraiki dand


*h₁dónt- also developed into Romani dan
tree comes from *drew [drəʊ], a variant of *doru, which
developed into Balochi دار daar “wood”


*doru also developed into Sanskrit दारु daaru


*doru also developed into Irish doire “oak wood, Derry”
true also comes from *drew [drəʊ]

two
Anglo-Saxon and Scots twa
comes from *dwóh₁- [dwoh]
developed into Pashto دوه duwa (slow, careful pronunciation)


*dwóh₁- also developed into Balochi دو doo, Urdu دو doo


*dwóh₁- also developed into Romani dui
under comes from *ndʰér [n̩dʱér]
developed into Sanskrit अधर adhara


*ndʰér [n̩dʱér] also developed into Latin infernus
up (see “over”) comes from *h₁upo [hupo], from earlier *supo. *h₁upo developed into Sanskrit उप upa, which further developed into Urdu اوپر uper
wain comes from *woǵʰ-
developed into Sanskrit वह्नि vahni “team of draft animals”
wag(g)on
(Middle Dutch loan)
also comes from *woǵʰ-

wake comes from *uh₂ǵ-e- [wagə]
developed into Sanskrit वाज vaaja “strength, vigour”


*uh₂ǵ-e- also developed into Persian بزرگ buzurg “large, big, great”
warm comes from *gʷʰor-mo-
developed into Sanskrit घर्म gharma-, which further developed into Urdu گرم garam
was (see “were”) comes from *h₂wés- [ħwes]
developed into Sanskrit सति vasati


*h₂wés- [ħwes] also developed into ProtoHellenic awesa, which developed into Ancient Greek ἄεσα aesa“I slept”
wasp (see “web”) comes from *h₁wobʰ-seh₂, derived from *h₁webʰ-, which developed into Balochi گْوَپت gwap “weave”
water (see “otter”, “wet”)
Scots watter
comes from *wodr , variant of *wodn, from the root *wed. The derived form *wedns
developed into Sanskrit उदन् udan

wax (to grow; see “eke”) comes from *h₂wég-s- [ħwegs]
developed into Sanskrit वक्ष् vaksh-, in e.g. vakshayati


*h₂wég-s- [ħwegs] also developed into Persian وخش vakhsh
we comes from *wey
developed into Sanskrit वयम् vayam
wear comes from *wos, derived from *wes, which
developed into Sanskrit वस्ते vaste
weave (see “wasp”) comes from *h₁webʰ-
developed into Pashto اوبدل obdal
web
also comes from
*h₁webʰ- also developed into Balochi گْوَپت gwap “weave”


*h₁webʰ- also developed into Persian بافتن baaftan “weave”


*h₁webʰ- also developed into Ancient Greek ὑφή huphe  
wed comes from *h₁wedʰ- [ə̥wedʰ] developed into Sanskrit वधू vadhu
weigh comes from *wéǵʰ- [weg̟ʰ]
developed into Balochi and Persian پرواز parwaz “flight”


*wéǵʰ- [weg̟ʰ] also developed into Sanskrit वहति vahati “to convey”


*wéǵʰ- [weg̟ʰ] further developed into Urdu بہنا behna “to flow”
were (see “was”) comes from *h₂wés- [ɐ̥wes] developed into Sanskrit सति vasati
were(wolf) (see “wolf”) comes from *wih₁ro- [ʋi:ɾo] developed into Sanskrit वीर vira


*wih₁ro- [ʋi:ɾo] further developed into Hindi वीर vir
west comes from *wekʷsper-os. *wekʷsper- developed into Bosnian večer vecher
wet (see “otter”, “water”) comes from *wed-. The derived form *wed-ns developed into Sanskrit उदन् ‎udan “water”
what comes from *kʷod
developed into Sanskrit कद् kad
wheat (see “white”) comes from *ḱwoid, derived from *ḱweid-, a form of *ḱʷeit- developed into Persian سفید sefid
wheel (see “cycle”) comes from *kʷel- “move around” developed into Ukrainian колесо koleso “wheel”


*kʷel- also developed into Hindi चलते chalte “walk”


*kʷel- also developed into Sanskrit चरति charati “walk”


*kʷel- also developed into Persian چریدن charidan “graze”
where comes from *kʷor
developed into Sanskrit कर्हि karhi
whether comes from *kʷóteros [kwótero—] developed into Sanskrit कतर katara
while comes from *kʷih₁- [kʷi:], derived from *kʷieh₁- [kʷie:]. The extended form *kʷieh₁-to- [kʷie:to] developed into Persian شاد shad “happy”
white (see “wheat”) comes from *ḱʷeid-, a form of *ḱʷeit- developed into Persian سفید sefid
who comes from *kʷó- [kwo] developed into Kurdish


*kʷó- [kwo] also developed into Ossetian чи chi
whole (see “hale”)
Anglo-Saxon hāl
comes from *koi-lo- developed into Bosnian cijelo “all”
wide (see “widow”) comes from *h₁weidʰh₁- [hweidʰə] developed into
Latvian vidus
widow (see “wide”) comes from *h₁widʰh₁-uh₂- [hwidʰəwaħ] developed into Hindi विधवा vidhva


*h₁widʰh₁-uh₂- [hwidʰəwaħ] also developed into Ukrainian удова udova
will comes from *wel- [wel] developed into Sanskrit वृणोति vrnoti
(the) wind comes from *h₂weh₁-nt- [ɐwent], earlier [ħwent] developed into Sanskrit वाति vata


*h₂weh₁-nt- [ɐwent] also developed into Persian باد bad


*h₂weh₁-nt- [ɐwent] also developed into Balochi گوات gwaat


 The stem *h₂weh₁- [ɐwe:] developed into Ancient Greek ἄημι aemi
-wise (manner) comes from *weid- [weɪd] developed into Hindi वेद ved
wit comes from *wid- [wi:d] developed into Sanskrit वेद veda
wolf (see “were(wolf)”) comes from *wĺ̥kʷ- [wl̩kʷ] developed into Slovak vlk



*wĺ̥kʷ- [wl̩kʷ] also developed into Bosnian vuk


*wĺ̥kʷ- [wl̩kʷ] also developed into Lithuanian vilkas


*wĺ̥kʷ- [wl̩kʷ] also developed into Sanskrit वृक vrka


*wĺ̥kʷ- [wl̩kʷ] also developed into Zazaki verg


*wĺ̥kʷ- [wl̩kʷ] also developed into Persian گرگ gorg
wool comes from *wl̥h́₁-neh₂- [wl̩énaħ]
developed into Pashto وړين waren


*wl̥h́₁-neh₂- [wl̩énaħ] also developed into Ancient Greek λῆνος lenos


Stress variant *wĺ̥h₁-neh₂- [wl̩naħ] also developed into Sanskrit ऊर्णा uurna


*wĺ̥h₁-neh₂- [wl̩naħ] further developed into Urdu اون uun


*wĺ̥h₁-neh₂- [wl̩naħ] also developed into Macedonian волна volna


*wĺ̥h₁-neh₂- [wl̩naħ] also developed into Latvian vilna


*wĺ̥h₁-neh₂- [wl̩naħ] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian vuna
word comes from *wr̥h₁t- [wɹ̩e̥tʰ] developed into Sanskrit and Hindi व्रत vrat


*wr̥h₁t- [wɹ̩e̥tʰ] also developed into Ancient Greek ῥητός rhetos
work comes from *wr̥ǵ- [wɹ̩g̟̊] developed into Persian ورز varz


*wr̥ǵ- [wɹ̩g̟̊] also developed into Ancient Greek ϝέργον wergon
worm comes from *kʷr̥mis- [kwɹ̩m] developed into Urdu کِرم kirm


*kʷr̥mis- [kwɹ̩m] also developed into Latvian ķirmis
yard comes from *gʰordʰ-o- developed into Persian کرت chart


*gʰordʰ-os also developed into Lithuanian gardas


*gʰordʰ-os also developed into Ancient Greek χόρτος khortos
year comes from *yeh₁-ro- [je:ɾɵ]
developed into Bosnian jar yar


*yeh₁-ro- [je:ɾɵ] also developed into Persian دچار‎ doch-yar “bad year, famine”
yearn comes from *ǵʰerh₁-no- [g̟ɦar]. A related form, *ǵʰr̩-yé-ti, developed into Sanskrit हर्यति haryati
yeast comes from *yes-tu- [jestʰu̥] developed into Persian جوشیدن jushidan
yellow (see “gold”) comes from
*ǵʰelh₃-wos [g̟ʱelʋus].
The stem, *ǵʰelh₃- [g̟ʱel —],
developed into Persian زرد zard


*ǵʰelh₃- [g̟ʱel —] also developed into Bosnian zelena “green”


*ǵʰelh₃-wos [g̟ʱelʋus] also developed into Latin helvus “yellow”
yoke comes from *yug-o- [jugo] developed into Persian یوغ yog
you comes from *yu(H)-e [iuɦe] developed into Sanskrit यूयम् yuyam
young comes from *h₂yuh₁n-ḱós [ɐju:ŋkos].
*h₂yuh₁n- [ɐju:n]-
developed into Persian جوان javon

The research into and construction of this site is generously funded by a Major Research Fellowship from the Leverhulme Trust. An Ancient Sounds project.

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