Audio Etymological Lexicon

Hear how English words evolved from Proto-Indo-European, and from Proto-Indo-European into selected “Eastern” languages

The audio simulations on this site illustrate how over 340 spoken English words are thought to have developed over thousands of years from their ancestral Proto-Indo-European pronunciations, and how those ancient pronunciations also developed into various “Eastern” languages. The meanings of the words in other languages are not always the same as in English, because meanings often shift over time; here we focus on how the sounds of words have evolved. Click on any of the blue links to hear my audio simulations of those changes over thousands of years. To hear them most clearly, it's best to listen with headphones. If you want to download any of the audio files, right-click on the down-arrow symbols (depending on your browser settings, they may open in a new tab or webpage). The large table below is difficult for screen readers. This blog (link here) is more readable.

Because there weren't any audio recordings in ancient times, I sometimes have to use roughly similar sounds instead, in which case there will of course be inaccuracies. And since we have no way of knowing exactly how the ancestral forms of words were pronounced, all these simulations are “my best guess, given the current state of our knowledge, the available recordings, and the limitations of my software”. Often I just simulate the main part of the word, ignoring inflections, suffixes etc. I welcome comments, corrections etc. by email to john.coleman@phon.ox.ac.uk , or message me @ancientsounds@mastodonapp.uk on Mastodon . (If you want to learn more about how the simulations of sound change are made, there is a slightly out of date technical article here .)

Rights: Although they are closely based upon audio data from sound recordings of many speakers, in the public domain or owned by the University of Oxford, all of the audio files on this site were created by John Coleman using signal processing and speech synthesis software. These sound files may be used or reused according to the terms of the Creative Commons CC BY-NC-SA 4.0 licence, without any need to ask for specific permission. Please direct any enquiries to john.coleman@phon.ox.ac.uk.

Note on transcriptions: In the middle column I use conventional philological notation with my own phonetic transcriptions in square brackets. These phonetic transcriptions reflect the audio simulations rather than some theoretically predicted pronunciations. If you are not familiar with these kinds of transcription, the linked audio clips demonstrate what pronunciations the transcriptions try to express. In the right-hand column, especially for languages written in non-Roman scripts, I use a simplified notation based on English spelling. I hope that this will be less confusing to most readers than the diverse specialist notations used for different languages in academic philological works. For the reconstructed ancestral forms, I mainly follow Ringe (2006) and Kroonen (2009), with my own phonetic interpretations.


English words come from Proto-Indo-European ancestors which also developed into Examples of “Eastern” relatives (with some Greek and Latin examples where appropriate)
a (see “an”, “any”, “one”)
comes from *h₁ói-nos [oinos]

developed into Albanian një
Anglo-Saxon ān
Proto-Germanic *aina

The variant form *h₁ói-kos [hoikos] developed into Mittanian aika, borrowed into (non-Indo-European) Hurrian 𒀀𒄿𒅗 aika


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos] also developed into Assamese এক ek


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos] also developed into Nepali एक ek


The variant form *h₁ói-wos [hoiwos] developed into Pashto یو yau


*h₁ói-wos [hoiwos] also developed into Ancient Greek οἶος hoios “only”
acre
Anglo-Saxon æcer
Proto-Germanic *akraz
comes from *h₂eǵ-ro-s [ɐg̟ʲrós], earlier [ħɐg̟ʲrós] developed into
Sanskrit अज्र ajra “field”, that developed into Hindi ajira
after (see “off”), Scots efter
Anglo-Saxon æfter
comes from *h₂ep-tero- [æptərə]. The derived form *h₂ep-ér- [apér] developed into Sanskrit अपर apara
= Proto-Germanic *after
*h₂ep-tero- [æptərə] developed into Albanian afër
aghast [əˈgɑ:st](see “ghastly”, “ghost”)
Northern English [əˈgast]
Anglo-Saxon gæst
Proto-Germanic *gaist
comes from *ǵʰois-d‑o- developed into Persian زشت‎ zesht “ugly”
ale
Anglo-Saxon ealu
Proto-Germanic *alu
comes from *h₂el-u-t [ħɐɫʊt], earlier [ħɛlʊt]
borrowed (from Germanic) into Ossetian ӕлутон alúton (no recording available), then borrowed into Finnish olut
all
Anglo-Saxon eall
comes from *h₂el-nó- [ħɐln—] developed into Sanskrit अरण्य aranya “wilderness”
Proto-Germanic *alla
*h₂el-nó- [ħɐln—] further developed into Bengali অরণ্য oronno “forest”
am (see “is”)
Anglo-Saxon eom
comes from *h₁és-mi [əsmi]
developed into
Sanskrit अस्मि asmi
Proto-Germanic *immi
*h₁és-mi [əsmi] also developed into Latvian esmu
an (see “a”, “any”, “one”)
Anglo-Saxon ān
Proto-Germanic *aina
comes from *h₁óin-os [oinos] developed into Albanian një
angle
Anglo-Saxon angel
comes from *h₂enk-ul-ó- [aŋk—], earlier [ħaŋk—] developed into
Iron Ossetian æнгуыр angur “fishing hook”
Proto-Germanic *angula
*h₂enk- [ħaŋk] also developed into Sanskrit अङ्क anka “hook, bend”


*h₂enk- [ħaŋk] also developed into Ancient Greek ἄγκος ‎angos “a bend”
ankle
Anglo-Saxon ancl-
comes from *h₂eng-ul- [aŋgʊl], stem *h₂eng- “joint”, earlier [ħæŋg] developed into Persian انگشت angusht “finger”
cf. Old Saxon ankel
*h₂eng- [ħæŋg] also developed into Siraiki angutha “thumb”
≈ Proto-Germanic *ankul(a)
*h₂eng-ul- [aŋgʊl] also developed into Sanskrit अंगुली anguli “finger”


*h₂eng-ul- [aŋgʊl] also developed into Ancient Greek ἀγκύλος angulos
answer (see “swear”)
Anglo-Saxon andswaru
comes from *s-uór- [swor]
developed into Sanskrit स्वर svara “voice, sound”


*s-uór- [swor] also developed into Ukrainian свари́ти swariti “argue, berate”
any (see “a”, “an”, “one”)
Anglo-Saxon æniġ
comes from *óin-os [oinos], earlier *h₁oi-no-s developed into Albanian një “a, an, one”
apple
≈ Anglo-Saxon æppel
comes from
*h₂ebol [ħɑboɫ] developed into Lithuanian obuolys


*h₂ebol [ħɑboɫ] also developed into South Slavic (e.g. Macedonian) jabolko, which pronunciation further developed to Bosnian jabuka
arm, Scots airm
Anglo-Saxon earm
comes from
*h₂erh₁-mos [armos], earlier [ħer:mos] developed into
Sanskrit ईर्म irma
Proto-Germanic *arma
*h₂erh₁-mos [ħer:mos] also developed into Ancient Greek ἁρμός harmos, Modern Greek αρμός armos
ash (dusty material; see “star”) comes from *h₂eh₂s [ħaχs], reduplicated form of *h₂es- burn developed into Urdu خاکی‎ khaki, borrowed into English khaki
Anglo-Saxon æsċe
Proto-Germanic *asko

*h₂eh₂s [ħaχs] also developed into Old Latin asa, Latin ara “altar”
ash (tree)
Anglo-Saxon æsċ
comes from
*h₃esk- [osk]
developed into
Armenian հաճարի hachari “beech”
Proto-Germanic *aska
*h₃esk- [osk] also developed into Modern Greek οξιά oksia (Ancient Greek ὀξύᾱ oksüa)
ask
Anglo-Saxon āsc
comes from
*h₂oisk- [ħoisk]. Zero-grade form *h₂isk-o [ħisko] developed into
Sanskrit इच्छा ichaa “desire”
Proto-Germanic *aisko
*h₂oisk- [ħoisk] also developed into Armenian այց aits “visit, search, care for”
bade [bad] (see “bid”)
Anglo-Saxon bæd
Proto-Germanic *bad
comes from
*bʰodʰ, a form of *bʰedʰ-, or *gʷʰedʰ developed into
Bosnian žedan zhedan “thirsty”
bade [beɪd], from Middle English [ba:d] is also from *bʰodʰ

bairn (see “bear”)
Middle English bern
comes from *bʰor‑no, a form of *bʰer developed into Sanskrit भरण bharana “bearing”
Anglo-Saxon bearn
*bʰer also developed into Persian بار bar “burden”
band (see “bind”)
= Anglo-Saxon bænd, Proto-Germanic *band-
comes from *bʰéndʰ developed into Persian بند band “band”
barrow
Anglo-Saxon beorg
comes from *bʰerǵʰ-os. *bʰerǵʰ developed into Arabic برج burj “tower” (via Middle Persian burg)
Proto-Germanic *berga
*bʰerǵʰ also developed into Persian برج borj “tower”


*bʰerǵʰ also developed into Kurdish برج berdz “tower”


*bʰerǵʰ also developed into Balochi برز ئه borza height”
be (see “been”)
Anglo-Saxon bēon
comes from *bʰuh₂ [bʱuɐ̆], earlier [bʱuɐ̥̆], [bʱuħ] developed into Persian بودن budan, Balochi بو bu
Proto-Germanic *būan
*bʰuh₂ [bʱuɐ̆] also developed into Albanian bo world”
to bear (see “bairn”)
comes from *bʰer‑ developed into Sanskrit भर bhar “bearing”
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic beran

*bʰer also developed into Persian بار bar “burden” and بردن burdan “to bear”


*bʰer further developed into Pashto وړل wral
beat
Anglo-Saxon bēatan
Proto-Germanic *bauta
comes from
*bʰóud developed into
Armenian բութ but
beech (see “book”)
Anglo-Saxon bēċ
comes from
*bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ], earlier [bʱeɑ̆g̟ʲ] developed into
Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian bazga
Anglian bœ̅ċ
derived from bōc

*bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ] also developed into Doric Greek φᾱγός pagos
= Proto-Germanic *bōk-

*bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ] also developed into Latin fagus
been [bi:n] (see “be”)
Middle English been
Anglo-Saxon bēon
Proto-Germanic *būan
comes from *bʰuh₂ [bʱuɐ̆], earlier [bʱuɐ̥̆], [bʱuħ] developed into Persian بودن budan, Balochi بو bu
been [bɪn] is also from *bʰuh₂ [bʱuɐ̆] also developed into Albanian bo world”
bellows
comes from *bʰolǵʰis developed into Persian بالش balesh “pillow, cushion”
belly
Anglo-Saxon bel(i)ġ
Proto-Germanic *balg
is also from *bʰolǵʰis

bequeath (see “quoth”)
Anglo-Saxon cwēþan
= Proto-Germanic *kweþan
comes from
*gʷet. Likely related to *gʷed, which developed into Sanskrit गदति gadati “to speak”
bid (see “bode”)
Anglo-Saxon bēodan
Proto-Germanic *beudan
comes from
*bʰeudʰ developed into
Sanskrit बुद्ध buddha “awakened”
bind (see “band”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic bindan
comes from
*bʰéndʰ developed into
Persian بند band “band”
birch
Anglo-Saxon birce
comes from *bʰerh₁ǵ developed into Lithuanian beržas
Proto-Germanic *birkijo
*bʰerh₁ǵ also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian breza
bite
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic bīt
comes from
*bʰéid
developed into
Sanskrit भिद् bhid-⇩


*bʰéid also developed into Ancient Greek φείδομαι pheidomai
black
Anglo-Saxon blæc
comes from
*bʰlog, a form of *bʰleg, possibly related to *bʰléiǵ  

bleach
Anglo-Saxon blǣc
comes from *bʰléiǵ developed into Sanskrit भ्रज bhrajati
Proto-Germanic *blaika
*bʰléiǵ also developed into Lithuanian bliz “shone”
bleat
Anglo-Saxon blæ̅tan
comes from
*bʰleh₁- [bʱle:], [bʱleə], earlier [bʱleh] developed into
Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian brbljati
Proto-Germanic *blēt- ≈ Latvian blēt, *blēj-
*bʰleh₁- [bʱleə] also developed into Latvian blēt
blossom
Anglo-Saxon blōstm
comes from
*bʰléh₃-e- [bʱlo:ə], earlier [bʱléŏə] developed into
Bengali ফুল phul
blow (to bloom)
Anglo-Saxon blāwan
Proto-Germanic *blōan
is also from *bʰléh₃-e- [bʱlo:ə] also developed into Latin flos
bode (see “bid”)
Middle English boden
Proto-Germanic *budōn-
comes from *bʰudʰ, a form of *bʰeudʰ.
*bʰudʰ

developed into

Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian bdeti
book (see “beech”)
Anglo-Saxon bōc
= Proto-Germanic *bōk-
comes from *bʰeh₂ǵ- [bʱɑ:g̟ʲ], earlier [bʱeɑ̆g̟ʲ] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian bazga
to bore
Anglo-Saxon borian
comes from
*bʰr(h₁)-eh₂- [bʱr̩hɐ], earlier [bʱr̩heħ] developed into
Sanskrit भारती bharati
Proto-Germanic *burojan
Related form *bʰor(h₁)-eh₂- [bʱorhɐ] developed into Proto-Italic *forao (which became Latin foro)
bottom
Anglo-Saxon botm
Proto-Germanic *buttman
(I kid you not)
comes from
*bʰudʰ‑mén-. This has a different stem from the homophonous root *bʰudʰ of bode. developed into
Persian بن‎ bun
bough
Anglo-Saxon bōg
comes from
*bʰeh₂ǵʰ-u- [bʱag̟ʲʱ‑]
developed into
Persian بازو bazu
Proto-Germanic *bōgu
*bʰeh₂ǵʰ-u- [bʱag̟ʲʱ‑] also developed into Aeolic Greek πᾶχῠς pakhus
bright
Scots bricht
Early Modern English bright
Middle English briȝt
comes from
*bʰerh₁ǵ- [bʱeɾɘg̟ʲ]
developed into
Persian برازیدن‎ barozidan “beautify”
Anglo-Saxon beorht, berht
= Proto-Germanic *berht-

*bʰerh₁ǵ- [bʱeɾɘg̟ʲ] also developed into Lithuanian brėkšta “to dawn”
bristle
Anglo-Saxon byrst
comes from
*bʰr̥stís [bʱr̩sti̥s]
developed into
Sanskrit भृष्टि bhrshti “tip, point, spike”
Proto-Germanic *burst
*bʰr̥stís [bʱr̩sti̥s] also developed into Ukrainian борщ borshch “hogweed, beetroot soup”
brother
Anglo-Saxon brōþor
comes from
*bʰréh₂tēr [bʱráte:r] developed into
Sanskrit भ्राता bhraata
Proto-Germanic *brōþer
*bʰréh₂tēr [bʱráte:r] also developed into Persian برادر barodar
brow
Scots broo
Middle English brow
comes from
*h₃bʰruh₁-s [ŏ̥bʱɾuəs]
developed into
Urdu ابرو abru
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic brū
*h₃bʰruh₁-s [ŏ̥bʱɾuəs] also developed into Ancient Greek ὀφρῦς ophrus
call
Anglo-Saxon ceall(ian)
Proto-Germanic *kalzo
comes from
*gols
developed into
Bosnian glas
can (see “know”)
Scots ken
comes from
*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ]
developed into
Urdu جاننا jaanna “know”
Anglo-Saxon cann

*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Lithuanian žinau “know”
= Proto-Germanic *kann
*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Ossetian зонын zhonyn“know”


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Balochi زان zan “know”


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Ancient Greek γνώση gnose “knowledge”
care
Anglo-Saxon ċearu
comes from
*ǵh̥₂r- [g̟ɐɹ̝] developed into
Doric Greek γᾶρυς garus
Proto-Germanic *karo
*ǵh̥₂r- [g̟ɐɹ̝] also developed into Ossetian зар zar “song” (no recording available)
carve
Anglo-Saxon ċeorfan
Proto-Germanic *kerban
comes from
*gerbʰ
developed into
Albanian gërvisht “scratch”
chin
Anglo-Saxon ċinn
comes from
*ǵenu [g̟enu] developed into

Persian زنخ zanakh
Proto-Germanic *kinn
*ǵenu [g̟enu] also developed into Persian چانه chaane
chinny reckon
comes from Anglo Saxon iċ ne recce
(see “I, reckon”)


choose
Anglo-Saxon ċeosan
Proto-Germanic *keusan
comes from
*ǵéus- [g̟ju:s]
developed into
Persian دوست duust “friend”, borrowed into Urdu as دوست dost
cold (see “cool”)
Anglian cald
comes from
*ǵól-to-, a form of *ḱel-to- developed into
Persian سرد sardborrowed into Urdu as سرد serd
= Proto-Germanic *kald
*ḱel-to- also developed into Lithuanian šaltas


*ḱel-to- also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian hlad “shade”
come
Anglo-Saxon cuman
comes from
*gʷem
developed into
Sanskrit गमति gamati
Proto-Germanic *kweman
*gʷem also developed into Dari گام gam“step”
cool (see “cold”)
Anglo-Saxon cōl
Proto-Germanic *kal‑
comes from
*ǵól, a form of *ḱel-to- developed into Persian سرد sard , borrowed into Urdu as سرد serd
corn
Anglo-Saxon corn
comes from
*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno], earlier [grħnó] “matured, ripened” developed into
Sanskrit जीर्ण jiirna “worn out”
Proto-Germanic *kurn
*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Lithuanian žirnis “pea”


*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Latvian zirni “peas”


*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Czech zrn “grains”


*ǵr̥h₂nó- [grɐno] also developed into Latin granum
cow, Scots coo
Anglo-Saxon
comes from
*gʷeh₃-u-s [gwous] developed into
Dari گاو gau, Persian گاو gov
Proto-Germanic *kou
*gʷeh₃-u-s [gwous] also developed into Ancient Greek βοῦς bous
crane
Anglo-Saxon crān
= Proto-Germanic *krān
comes from
*gr-on‑ (possibly) also developed into
Persian کلنگ kolang
cud
Anglo-Saxon cudu, cwidu Proto-Germanic *kwedu
comes from
*gʷétu
developed into
Sanskrit जतु jatu “gum, resin”
cycle (via Latin from Ancient Greek κύκλος küklos; see “wheel”) comes from *kʷekʷlos [kwekʷlos], from *kʷe-kʷel‑os “move around and around”, reduplication of *kʷel “move around” developed into
Ancient Greek κύκλος klos


*kʷekʷlos [kwekʷlos] also developed into Sanskrit चक्र chakra, that developed into Urdu چکر chakar
dale
Anglo-Saxon dæ̅l
Proto-Germanic *dal-⇩
comes from *dʰol- [dʱol] developed into Ukrainian Долина Dolyna, a place name, “Dale”
dare (see “durst”)
Anglo-Saxon dearr
comes from
*dʰors
developed into
Persian داشتن daashtan “to have, hold”
Proto-Germanic *(ga)dars
*dʰors also developed into Sanskrit धर्षति dharshati “dare, challenge”
daughter, Scots dochter
Anglo-Saxon dohtor
comes from
*dʰugh₂tḗr [dʱugɐté:ɾ], earlier [dʱugħté:ɾ] developed into
Persian دختر dukhter (a good proxy for the Proto-Germanic pronunciation)
Proto-Germanic *duhtēr
*dʰugh₂tḗr [dʱugħté:ɾ] also developed into Bulgarian дъщеря dushterya


*dʰugh₂tḗr [dʱugħté:ɾ] also developed into Armenian դուստր duster


*dʰugh₂tḗr [dʱugħté:ɾ] also developed into Ancient Greek θυγατέρα thugatera
day
Anglo-Saxon dæ̅g
Proto-Germanic *daga
comes from
*dʰegʷʰ- [dʱəgʷʱ] developed into Urdu داغ dagh “a burn”
deed (see “do”)
Middle English deed
comes from
*dʰéh₁-ti- [e:ti] developed into
Sanskrit धातु dhaatu
Anglo-Saxon dæ̅d
Proto-Germanic *dēdi

*dʰéh₁-ti- [e:ti] also developed into Ancient Greek θέσις thesis
deep
Middle English deep
Anglo-Saxon dēop
≈ Proto-Germanic *deup-
comes from
*dʰeub- [dʱɛʊb] developed into
Albanian det “sea”
deer
Anglo-Saxon dēor
comes from
*dʰeus
developed into
Urdu دھنسنا dhasna “to fall”
Proto-Germanic *deuz
*dʰeus also developed into Lithuanian dvasia “spirit, breath”
dew
Anglo-Saxon dēaw
comes from
*dʰouh₂ [dʱoʊɐ] developed into Sanskrit धव् dhav “run, flow”
Proto-Germanic *daww
*dʰouh₂ [dʱoʊɐ] also developed into Persian دود  dud “smoke”


The related form *dʰuh₂ [dʱuɐ] developed into Siraiki dhuul “dust”


The derived form *dʰuh₂-mos developed into Latin fumos “smoke”
do (see “deed”)
comes from *dʰoh₁- [dʱo:], a form of*dʰéh₁‑ developed into Sanskrit धा dhaa “something put down”
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic
*dʰéh₁‑ developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian nedelja “not-doing” i.e. “Sunday; week”
door
Anglo-Saxon duru
comes from
*dʰur and related form *dʰwor developed into
Ossetian дуар dwar
Proto-Germanic *dur
*dʰwor also developed into Sanskrit dvar, which further developed into Punjabi ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ gurdwara = gur+dwara “gateway to the gurus”; for gur see “quern”.


*dʰwor also developed into Romani vudar


*dʰwor also developed into Persian در dar
dream
Anglo-Saxon drēam
Proto-Germanic *drau(g)m
comes from
*dʰrougʰ-mo-
developed into
Persian دروغ doroog “untruth, lie, falsehood”
durst (see “dare”)
Anglo-Saxon durr
comes from *dʰors developed into Persian داشتن daashtan “have, hold”
Proto-Germanic *durz
*dʰors also developed into Sanskrit धर्षति dharshati “dare, challenge”
ear
Anglo-Saxon ēare
comes from *h₂ous [hɔus]. The dual form, *h₂ṓus-ih₁, developed into Persian هوش‎ hoosh
Proto-Germanic *auz
Another inflected form, *h₂óus-es- [hɔuses], developed into Lithuanian ausis
earth, Scottish earth
Anglo-Saxon ēorþe
comes from
*h₁ér-t- [e:rt], earlier [hɘrt]
developed into
Albanian varr
≈ Proto-Germanic *erþ-
*h₁ér-t- [hɘrt] also developed into Persian خر kharr “mud”


*h₁ér-t- [hɘrt] also developed into Zazaki her
east
Anglo-Saxon ēast
comes from
*h₂eus- [hɛus]. The related form *h₂us developed into
Sanskrit उषस् ushas “dawn”
Proto-Germanic *austr
*h₂us further developed into Siraiki ushaa “light”


*h₂eus- [hɛus] also developed into Latin Aurora
eat (see “tooth”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic etan
comes from
*h₁éd- [ɛd]
developed into
Sanskrit अत्ति atti


*h₁éd- [ɛd] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian jedem


*h₁éd- [ɛd] also developed into Ancient Greek ἔδω edo
edge (see “heaven”)
Anglo-Saxon ecg
comes from
*h₂eḱ- [ħakʲ], from earlier [ħekʲ],
developed into
Persian آس aas “millstone”
Proto-Germanic *agjō
*h₂eḱ- [ħakʲ] also developed into Ancient Greek ἀκίς akis “barb”
egg, a loan from Old Norse comes from
*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio]
developed into
Persian خایه‎ haye
Anglo-Saxon æ̅ġ
Proto-Germanic *ajja
is also from
*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio], which also developed into Balochi ہیک hayk


*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio] also developed into Pashto هګئ hagey


*h₂ōu-ió- [χɐuio], derived from *h₂eu-is [ħɐʊɪs] “bird”, which developed into Armenian հավ hav “bird”


*h₂eu-is [ħɐʊɪs] also developed into Latin avis “bird”
eight, Scots eicht = Middle English eiȝt
Anglian æhta
Proto-Germanic *ahto
comes from
*h₂oḱtṓu developed into
Tajik ҳашт hasht
eke (see “wax”)
Anglo-Saxon eac
comes from
*h₂éug- [hɑug], which developed into
Latvian augt “grow”
Proto-Germanic *aukan
*h₂éug- [hɑug] also developed into Lithuanian aukštas “high, tall”


*h₂éug- [hɑug] also developed into Latin Augustus “increased, honored”
elbow = ell-bow
Anglo-Saxon elne
comes from
*h₁eh₃l-én-eh₂- [ho̥léna]
developed into
Persian ارنج arenj
Proto-Germanic *alīnō
*h₁eh₃l-én-eh₂- [ho̥léna] also developed into Modern Greek ωλένη oleni “ulna, elbow bone”


*h₁eh₃l-én-eh₂- [ho̥léna] also developed into Latin ulna


*h₁eh₃l-é- [holé] developed into Latvian olekts
else
Anglo-Saxon elles
Proto-Germanic *aljas
comes from
*h₂él-io-s [ɐlios], earlier [ħelios] developed into
Armenian այլ ayl “other, also, but”
empty (see “mete”)
Anglo-Saxon æmtig
Proto-Germanic *amt
comes from *méd-e “measure”
developed into
Armenian միտք ‎ mitk’ “mind, idea”
English (see “hangnail”)
Anglo-Saxon engel
comes from *h₂emǵʰ-u- [ħaŋgʱu] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian uzak “narrow”
Proto-Germanic *angwu
*h₂emǵʰ-u- [ħaŋgʱu] also developed into Latin ango “choke, constrict”
enough
Middle English ynogh
comes from
*h₂noḱ- [ɐ̥nok], earlier [ħnok] developed into
Sanskrit नशति nashati “to reach, attain”
Anglo-Saxon genog
*h₂e-h₂noḱ- [ħɐ̥ħnok] also developed into Albanian kënaq “satisfy”
Proto-Germanic *noga
*h₂noḱ- [ħnok] also developed into Ancient Greek ἀνάγκη anangke “necessity”


The derived form *h₂nḱ- [ħnk] developed into Armenian հասնել hasnel “reach”
ewe
Anglo-Saxon ēow
comes from *h₃éu-i-s [ʕo:is] (Simulation 1)

Alternatively, ewe
comes from
*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] (Simulation 2) developed into Sanskrit अवि avi
Proto-Germanic *awis
*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] also developed into Lithuanian avis


*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] also developed into Armenian հովիվ hovif “shepherd”


*h₃éu-i-s [ħʷo:is] also developed into Bosnian ovca
eye, Scots ee
Anglo-Saxon ēge
comes from
*h₃okʷ [okʷ], a form of *h₃ekʷ [ʕekʷ] (?) developed into
Urdu آنکھ aankh
Proto-Germanic *augo
*h₃okʷ [okʷ] also developed into Romani yakh


*h₃okʷ [okʷ] also developed into Armenian ակն ‎akn


*h₃okʷ [okʷ] also developed into Latin oculus
fallow (pale coloured, as in “fallow deer”) comes from
*polh₁-uo [polwo]. The related form *polh₁-tos [polɪtos] developed into
Sanskrit पलित palita “grey”
Anglo-Saxon fealu
Proto-Germanic *falwa

From the same stem *polh₁‑, another form, *polh₁-yos, developed into Ancient Greek πολιός ‎‎polios “grey”


The related form *pelh₁ developed into Latvian pelēks
fare (see “ford”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic faran
comes from
*pór-e‑
developed into
Persian پل pul “bridge”
fart
Anglo-Saxon feortan
Proto-Germanic *fert
comes from *pérd-e‑
developed into Urdu پادری pardri
fast (Northern English)
= Anglo-Saxon fæst
comes from *ph₂sth₂-o- [pastao]. *ph₂st(h₂)- developed into Armenian հաստ hast “firm, steady”
= Proto-Germanic *fast-
*ph₂sth₂ developed from *ph₂ǵ-sth₂ “fix/stand”. *ph₂ǵ‑ continued almost unchanged into Latin paganus “countrysider” (pagus = “region, countryside”)
father (see “food”)
Anglo-Saxon fæder
comes from *ph₂-tḗr [pɑté:r], earlier [pħté:r] “feeder, protector” developed into Persian پدر‎ pedar
Proto-Germanic *fadēr
*ph₂-tḗr [pɑté:r] further developed into Pashto پلار plar


*ph₂-tḗr [pɑté:r] also developed into Latin pater
feather (see “fern”)
Anglo-Saxon feþer
comes from *péth₂r- [pétɐr], earlier [pétħr] developed into Armenian փետուր petur


The stem *péth₂- [pétɐ] also developed into Modern Greek πέταλο petalo “petal, horseshoe”


*péth₂- [pétɐ] also developed into Marathi पत्र patra
fee
Anglo-Saxon feoh
comes from *péḱu [pék̟ʉ]
“cattle, property”
developed into Sanskrit पशु ‎pashu “cattle”
Proto-Germanic *fehu
*péḱu [pék̟ʉ] also developed into Punjabi ਪਸ਼ੂ pashu “cattle”


*péḱu [pék̟ʉ] also developed into Pashto پسه‎ pasa “sheep”


*péḱu [pék̟ʉ] also developed into Ossetian фыс fush “sheep”
fern (see “feather”)
Anglo-Saxon fearn
comes from *pterh₂ [pterħ] (Kroonen) developed into Persian پر per “feather, wing”
Proto-Germanic *farna
*pterh₂ [pterħ] also developed into Ancient Greek πτερά ptera “feathers, wings”
few
Anglo-Saxon feawe
comes from *ph₂u- [pɐu], earlier [pħu] developed into Urdu پُوت‎ puut “son”
Proto-Germanic *faw
*ph₂u- [pɐu] also developed into Latin paucus
field (see “flat”)
Anglo-Saxon feld
comes from *pelth₂- [peltɐ] ~ [peltħ]. Variant form *plth₂- [pl̩tɐ] developed into Sanskrit पृथु prthu “broad, wide”
Proto-Germanic *felþ-⇩
Alternative analysis: *pelh₂- [pelɐ], variant *polh₂- [polɐ] developed into Proto-Slavic and Polish pole


*pelh₂- [pelɐ] further developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian and Slovenian polje
fiend
Anglo-Saxon fēond
Proto-Germanic *fijand
comes from *ph₁-i-ont- [pi:ont]
developed into Sanskrit पीयति piyati “hate”
fierce
Middle English fers
comes from *ǵʰwēr developed into Persian شیر shir, which was adapted into Mandarin Chinese 狮子 shizi sh’dz’ “lion”
via Latin fērus
*ǵʰwēr also developed into Lithuanian žvėrinė “huntress”
fight
Anglo-Saxon feoht
Proto-Germanic *fehtan
comes from *peḱ-t-e. The derived form *poḱ‑s-mn̥ developed into Persian پشم pashm “wool”
film
Proto-Germanic *felm-⇩
comes from *pel-mo. A related form *pel-no developed into Bosnian pelena “diaper”
find (see “path”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic findan
comes from *pént-e
developed into Vedic Sanskrit पन्थासो panthaso “path”, borrowed into Bengali পন্থা pontha
fire
Anglo-Saxon fȳr
comes from *péh₂‐ur [pa(ħ)ur]
developed into Balochi پُر phor “ashes, flames”
Proto-Germanic *fuwōr
*péh₂‐ur [pa(ħ)ur] also developed into Armenian հուր hur
first (see “former”)
Anglo-Saxon fyrst
comes from *preh₂- [pʰreɐ], earlier [pʰreħ]
developed into Hindi प्रथम pratham
Proto-North-West Germanic *fōr-est
*preh₂- [pʰreɐ] also developed into Doric Greek πρᾶτος pratos
Proto-Germanic *fur-ist, superlative of *fura
The derived form *prh₂-wos [pʰrɐwos] developed into Sanskrit पूर्व purva


*prh₂-wos [pʰrɐwos] also developed into Bulgarian първо prrvo
five
Anglo-Saxon fīf
comes from *pénkʷe
developed into Proto-Indo-Iranian and Sanskrit पञ्च pancha
Proto-Germanic *fimfe
*pénkʷe further developed into Urdu پانچ panch, borrowed into English “punch” (drink made of five ingredients)


*pénkʷe also developed into Balochi پنچ‎ panch


*pénkʷe also developed into Kurdish پێنج, pênc pench


*pénkʷe also developed into Punjabi ਪੰਜ panj, as in ਪੰਜਾਬ Punj Ab “five rivers”


*pénkʷe also developed into Persian پنج‎ panj


*pénkʷe also developed into European Romani panzh


*pénkʷe also developed into Ossetian фондз fondz


*pénkʷe also developed into Pashto پنځه pindza


*pénkʷe also developed into Armenian հինգ hing


*pénkʷe also developed into Ancient Greek πέντε pente


*pénkʷe also developed into Albanian pesë


*pénkʷe also developed into Welsh pump


*pénkʷe also developed into Oscan 𐌐𐌖𐌌𐌐𐌄 pumpe, which developed into Italian Pompei


*pénkʷe also developed into Latin quinque


*pénkʷe also developed into Irish cúig


A derived form, *pnkʷ-ti, developed into Ukrainian п'ять pjatj


*pnkʷ-ti also developed into Bosnian pet


*pnkʷ-ti also developed into Lithuanian penki


*pnkʷ-ti also developed into Latvian piektdiena “fifth day” i.e. Friday
flat (see “field”)
Loan from Old Norse flatr
comes from *plth₂‑ [pl̩tɐ] developed into Sanskrit पृथु prthu “broad, wide”
Proto-Germanic *flataz
*plth₂‑ [pl̩tɐ] also developed into Ancient Greek Πλαταια Plataia, a city-state, literally “Flat Country”
flax
Anglo-Saxon fleax
comes from *pleḱ-t
developed into Sanskrit प्रश्न prashna “woven basket”
Proto-Germanic *flaht
*pleḱ-t also developed into Ukrainian плести́ plesti “weave”
flow
Anglo-Saxon flōwan
comes from *plṓu-e [pʰloʊə]
developed into Ukrainian плавати plavati “float, swim”, Slovenian plavati
= Proto-Germanic *flōan
*plṓu-e also developed into Sanskrit अन्ववप्लु plavate “dive”
fodder (see “food”)
Anglo-Saxon fodor
comes from *peh₂- [peħ, peɐ̥] developed into Persian پاییدن payidan “protect, feed”
Proto-Germanic *fodra
*peh₂- [peɐ̥] also developed into Latin pastum “pasture”
foe
Middle English foo
comes from *póiḱ‑o-. The derived form *piḱ developed into Sanskrit पिशुन pishuna “evil”
Anglo-Saxon fāh
Proto-Germanic *faih

*piḱ also developed into Lithuanian piktas “angry”
food (see “fodder”, “father”)
Anglo-Saxon fōda
Proto-Germanic *fodra
comes from *peh₂- [peħ, peɐ̥] developed into Persian پاییدن payidan “protect, feed”
foot
comes from *pōd
developed into Sanskrit and Hindi पद pad
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic fōt
*pōd also developed into Balochi پاد paad


*pōd also developed into Pashto پل pal “footstep”
ford (see “fare”)
Anglo-Saxon ford
comes from *pr̥tu- [pr̩tʰu]
developed into Sanskrit पिपर्ति piparti “bring over”
Proto-Germanic *furdu
*pr̥tu- [pr̩tʰu] also developed into Persian and Urdu پل pul “bridge”
former (see “first”)
Anglo-Saxon forma
Proto-Germanic *fruman
comes from *prh₂-mó- [pʰrɐmo], earlier [pʰr̩ħmo]
developed into
Lithuanian pirmo
four, Scots fowre
Anglo-Saxon fēower
comes from *kʷetwṓr
developed into Ukrainian чоти́ри chotiri
Proto-Germanic *fedwōr
*kʷetwṓr also developed into Sanskrit चतुर् chatur


*kʷetwṓr also developed into Persian چهار chahar
friend
Anglo-Saxon frēond
comes from *prih₁-eh₂- [pʰri:ɐ:], earlier [pʰriheħ] developed into Kurdish ئافراندن‎ afrandin “create”
Proto-Germanic *frijon
*prih₁-eh₂- [pʰri:ɐ:] also developed into Sanskrit प्रीणाति priinaati “to please”


*prih₁-eh₂- [pʰri:ɐ:] also developed into Bosnian prijatelj “friend”
full = Anglo-Saxon full
Proto-Germanic *fulla
comes from *plh₁-nó- [pl̩n —]
developed into Persian پر pur


*plh₁-nó- [pl̩n —] also developed into Sanskrit पृणाति prnaati “fill”


Variant form *pleh₁-nó- developed into Latin plenus
gander (see “goose”)
Anglo-Saxon gan(d)ra
comes from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] developed into Urdu ہنس hans
Proto-Germanic *ganzô
*ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] also developed into Latin anser “duck”
gang
Proto-Germanic *gang
comes from *ǵʰengʰ developed into Sanskrit जङ्घा janghaa “leg”


*ǵʰengʰ also developed into Romani chang “knee”


*ǵʰengʰ also developed into Urdu ٹانگ taang “leg”
garden (see “gird”, “yard”)
comes from *gʰordʰ-o, a form of *gʰerdʰ‑. The derived form *gʰrdʰ‑ developed into Persian کرت chart “plot”
Anglo-Norman and Frankish *gardin
*gʰordʰ-os also developed into Lithuanian gardas
Proto-Germanic *garda
*gʰordʰ-os also developed into Ancient Greek χόρτος khortos


*gʰordʰ-o developed into Pashto كور kor “house”
geese (see “goose”)
Anglo-Saxon gēs
from earlier *[gœ̅si]
comes from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] developed into Urdu ہنس hans
ghastly (see “aghast”)
Anglo-Saxon gæst
comes from *ǵʰois-d‑o- developed into Persian زشت‎ zesht “ugly”
ghost
Anglo-Saxon gast
Proto-Germanic *gaist
is also from *ǵʰois-d‑o-
also developed into Lithuanian ižeisti “offend”
gird (see “garden”, “yard”)
Proto-Germanic *gerd
comes from *gʰerdʰ‑. The derived form *gʰrdʰ‑ developed into Persian کرت chart “plot”
glad
Anglo-Saxon glæd
comes from *gʰleh₂dʰ- [gʱla:dʱ], earlier [gʱleɐdʱ], [gʱleħdʱ] developed into Bosnian gladak “smooth”
= Proto-Germanic *glad(a)

The derived form *gʰlh₂dʰ-ro- [gʱlɐdʱro] developed into Latin, Spanish and Italian glabro
glee
Anglo-Saxon gleo(w)
Proto-Germanic *gliw(a)
comes from *gʰlei. The related form *gʰleu
developed into Bosnian glumiti “act, pretend”
go
Middle English gon
comes from *ǵʰeh₁- [g̟ʱe:]
developed into Sanskrit जहाति jahaati “abandon, go away from”
Anglo-Saxon gān
Proto-Germanic *gēn

The derived form *ǵʰeh₁-ro [g̟ʱe:ro] developed into Ancient Greek χήρα khera “person left behind, widow”
gold (see “yellow”)
= Anglo-Saxon gold
comes from *ǵʰlh₃-to- [g̟ʱl̩t—]. The related form *ǵʰelh₃- [g̟ʱel—] developed into Persian زرد zard “yellow”
Proto-Germanic *gulda
*ǵʰelh₃- [g̟ʱel—] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian zelena “green”


The derived form *ǵʰlh₃-ros [g̟ʱlo̥ros] developed into Ancient Greek χλωρός khloros “yellowy-green” (as in chlorine)
good
Anglo-Saxon gōd
comes from *gʰodʰ-eh₂- [gʱodʱa:] developed into Sanskrit गध्य gadhya “to seize”
Proto-Germanic *gōda
*gʰodʰ-eh₂- [gʱodʱa:] also developed into Bosnian ugodan “pleasing”
goose (see “gander”, “geese”)
Anglo-Saxon gōs
Proto-Germanic *gans
comes from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns] developed into Urdu ہنس hans
gosling
Anglo-Saxon gōsling
is also from *ǵʰh₂ens [gʱɐns], which also developed into Latin anser
groom
Anglo-Saxon guma
comes from *dʰǵʰm-on
developed into Pashto ځمکه‎ dzmaka “earth”
= Proto-Germanic *guma(n)
*dʰǵʰm-on also developed into Persian زمین‎ zamin “earth”
hale (see “whole”)
Anglo-Saxon hāl
Proto-Germanic *haila
comes from *koi-l
developed into Bosnian cijelo “all”
hall
Anglo-Saxon heall
Proto-Germanic *hallo
comes from *ḱel- [k̟ʲel]
developed into Sanskrit शाला shaala, borrowed into Thai ศาลา saalaa
hang
Anglo-Saxon hangian
comes from *ḱónk-e
developed into Sanskrit शङ्क shanka “doubt”
Proto-Germanic *hanhan
*ḱónk-e also developed into Hittite 𒅗𒀀𒀭𒆠 kaanki
hangnail (see “English”)
Proto-Germanic *angwu‑
comes from *h₂emǵʰ-u- [ħaŋgʱu] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian uzaknarrow”
hare
Anglo-Saxon hara
comes from *ḱh₂s-en- [kɐsən] developed into Sanskrit शश shasha
Proto-Germanic *hazan
*ḱh₂s-en- [kʰasən] also developed into European Romani shoshoi


*ḱh₂s-en- [kʰasən] also developed into Latin canus “white”
harrow (see “shear”)
Anglo-Saxon hearwa
Proto-Germanic *harbo
comes from *ker-p
developed into Urdu کرپان krpaan “sword”
harvest
Proto-Germanic *harbist
is also from *ker-p also developed into Punjabi ਕਿਰਪਾਨ kirpaan, the dagger worn by Sikhs
hart (see “horn”)
Anglo-Saxon heorot
comes from *ḱer-h₂. The derived form *ḱor-h₂ developed into Lithuanian karvė “cow”
≈ Proto-Germanic *herut-
*ḱor-h₂ also developed into Ukrainian корова korova “cow”
have
Anglo-Saxon habban
comes from *kh₂p-éh₁- [kapé:]
developed into Sanskrit कपटी kapati “holding” (as much as can be held in the two hands joined)
Proto-Germanic *haben
The root *kh₂p- [kap] developed into Albanian kap “grab, catch”


*kh₂p- [kap] also developed into Ancient Greek κάπτω kapto “gulp”
head
Anglo-Saxon hēafod
comes from *kh₂p-ut- [kɐput] continued almost unchanged into Latin caput
Proto-Germanic *haubed
A related form, *kh₂p-ol- [kɐpol] developed into Sanskrit and Nepali कपाल kapaal “skull”


*kh₂p-ol- [kɐpol] also passed (by borrowing from Sanskrit) into Japanese 瓦 kawara “roof tile”
heart
Scots hert
comes from *ḱerd [k̟ʲerd]
developed into Hindi हृदय hrday
Anglo-Saxon heort Proto-Germanic *hert‑
*ḱerd [k̟ʲerd] also developed into Pashto زړه zra


*ḱerd [k̟ʲerd] also developed into Bosnian srce
heaven (see “edge”)
Anglo-Saxon heofon
comes from *h₂ḱ-mon- [ħak̟ʲmon], from *h₂eḱ-mon- [ħek̟ʲmon] developed into Persian آسمان asman “sky”
Proto-Germanic *hemon
*h₂eḱ-mon- [ħek̟ʲmon] also developed into Lithuanian akmuõ “stone”


*h₂eḱ-mon- [ħek̟ʲmon] also developed into Ancient Greek ἄκμων akmon “anvil, meteoric stone, meteorite”
hen
Proto-Germanic *hanô
comes from *keh₂n- [ka:n] developed into Persian خواندن khandan “to sing, call”


*keh₂n- [ka:n] also developed into Slovak káňa “buzzard”
herd
Anglo-Saxon heord
comes from *ḱerdʰ-eh₂- [k̟ʲeɾdʱeɐ], earlier [k̟ʲerdʱeħ] developed into
Bosnian krda
Proto-Germanic *herdo
*ḱerdʰ-eh₂- also developed into Slovenian čreda
hew
Anglo-Saxon hēawan
Proto-Germanic *hawwan
comes from *kóuh₂-e- [kóuɐ̥], earlier [kóuħe] developed into Bosnian kovač “smith”
high
Anglo-Saxon hēah
Proto-Germanic *hauha
comes from *kóuk-o
developed into Bosnian kuka “hook”
hold
Anglo-Saxon healdan
Proto-Germanic *haldan
comes from *kel- [kel]
developed into Sanskrit कलयति kalayati “counts”
home
Anglo-Saxon hām
comes from *ḱoim‑os, a form of *ḱei
developed into Sanskrit शी shi “to lie down”
Proto-Germanic *haim
*ḱoim also developed into Lithuanian kaima- “village”
honey
Anglo-Saxon huniġ
comes from *kn̥h₂-onk-o-s [kn̩aoŋk̟os]
developed into Hindi कनक kanak “gold”
Proto-Germanic *hunang
The related form *kn̥h₂-ko- [knɐko] developed into Doric Greek κνακός knakos “safflower” (Mycenaean Greek 𐀏𐀙𐀒 ka-na-ko)
hook
Anglo-Saxon hoc
comes from *kéh₃go- [kɔgɔ], derived from *kéh₃ngo- [kɔŋgɔ] developed into Persian چنگ chang “claw”
= Proto-Germanic *hok-
*kéh₃go- [kɔgɔ] developed into Russian ко́готь kogot
horn (see “hart”)
Anglo-Saxon horn
Proto-Germanic *hurn-⇩
comes from *ḱr̥-n- [k̟ʲr̩n]. The derived form *ḱr-n-go- developed into Sanskrit शृङ्ग shrnga. The Persian cognate of this word, سرنا sorna, a musical instrument, was borrowed into Chinese as 唢呐 (Mandarin suǒnà).


*ḱr̥-n- [k̟ʲr̩n] also developed into Luwian 𒍪𒌨𒉌 zurni


The root *ḱer developed into Northern Kurdish ser and Urdu سر ser “head”


*ḱer also developed into Armenian սար sar “peak, mountain”; Persian and Pashto سر sar “head”
hound
Anglo-Saxon hund
comes from *ḱu-on developed into Sanskrit श्वन् shwan
= Proto-Germanic *hund-
*ḱu-on also developed into Armenian շուն shun


*ḱu-on also developed into Lithuanian šuo
hue
Proto-Germanic *heu
comes from *ḱieh₁- [k̟ʲe:], earlier [k̟ʲeh] developed into Persian سیاه siyah “black”
hundred (see “ten”)
Anglo-Saxon hund-red
comes from *ḱm̥tóm [k̟ʲm̩tóm], earlier *dḱm̥-tó- [dk̟ʲm̩tó]. *dḱm̥t “ten” developed into Iron Ossetian сӕдӕ shada, which further developed into Digor Ossetian сӕдӕ sada
= Proto-Germanic *hund-rada
*dḱm̥t also developed into Persian صد sad
I
Anglo-Saxon iċ
comes from *h₁éǵh₂ [heɟɐ̥] developed into Ossetian æз az
Proto-Germanic *ik
*h₁éǵh₂ [heɟɐ̥] also developed into Pashto زه‎ zuh [zə]
ice
Anglo-Saxon īs
Proto-Germanic *īsa
comes from *h₁éih₁-so [heiso].
The related form *h₁eih₁-ko- [heiko]
developed into Urdu یخ yakh
is (see “am”)
Anglo-Saxon is
comes from *h₁és-ti [ésti] developed into Sanskrit अस्ति asti
Proto-Germanic *isti
*h₁és-ti [ésti] also developed into Persian است ast


*h₁és-ti [ésti] also developed into Albanian është


*h₁és-ti [ésti] also developed into Bosnian jeste
jowl
Anglo-Saxon ċeafl
comes from
*ǵebʰ- [ʤeb]
developed into
Urdu جبڑا jabra
Proto-Germanic *kavlaz
*ǵebʰ- [ʤeb] also developed into Czech žábra “fish gill”
kill (see “quell”)
Anglo-Saxon cwellan
comes from *gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] developed into Lithuanian įgelti “to sting”
Proto-Germanic *kwalian
*gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] also developed into Latvian iedzelt “to sting”


*gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] also developed into Ukrainian жаль zhal “sorrow”


*gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian žaoka “stinger, barb”


*gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] also developed into Ancient Greek βέλεμνον belemnon, “javelin, dart”
kin
Anglo-Saxon cyn
Proto-Germanic *kuni-
comes from *ǵenh₁- [g̟ʲenə]
developed into Sanskrit जनति janati “give birth”
kind
Anglo-Saxon cynd
is also from *ǵenh₁- [g̟ʲenə] also developed into Persian زادن‎ zadan “give birth”
Proto-Germanic *kindi
*ǵenh₁- [g̟ʲenə] also developed into Ancient Greek γενέτα geneta “birth”
knee
Anglo-Saxon cnēo
comes from *ǵn-eu- [g̟nəo]. The related form *ǵonu developed into Sanskrit जानु jaanu
= Proto-Germanic *knew-
*ǵonu also developed into Urdu زانو zanu
know (see “can”)
Anglo-Saxon cnāwan
comes from *ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] developed into Urdu جاننا jaannaa
Proto-West Germanic *knā-

*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Lithuanian žinau


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Ossetian зонын zhonyn


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Balochi زان zan


*ǵnéh₃- [g̟nəŏ] also developed into Ancient Greek γνώση gnose
land
= Anglo-Saxon and Proto-West Germanic land
comes from *lendʰ- [lendʱ] developed into Polish Lędzianie “Lendians”
lean
Anglo-Saxon hleon
comes from *ḱli-n- [k̟li:n]. The related form *ḱlei
developed into Sanskrit श्रयते shrayate
Proto-Germanic *hlin-⇩
*ḱlei further developed into Panjabi ਆਸਰਾ aasara “refuge”
leave over
Anglo-Saxon læ̅f
comes from *loip. The related form *leip developed into Polish lepić “mould, be sticky”
Proto-Germanic *laib
*leip also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian ljepilo “glue”


*leip also developed into Greek λιπαρός liparos oily”
lend (see “loan”)
Anglo-Saxon læ̅n
comes from *leikʷ “to leave”
developed into Persian ریختن rikhtan “pour, spill, sprinkle”
Proto-Germanic *lihwan cf. Old Saxon lihan
*leikʷ also developed into Lithuanian liko “left”
let
Anglo-Saxon læ̅t
Proto-Germanic *lēt
comes from *leh₁d- [le:d]
developed into Albanian lodh “to tire”
lick
Anglo-Saxon liccian
Proto-Germanic *likkon
comes from *liǵʰ
developed into Persian لیس lis
lie down
Anglo-Saxon licgan
Proto-Germanic *ligjan
comes from *légʰyo
developed into Bosnian ležati lezhati
to tell a lie
Middle English lien
Anglo-Saxon lēogan
≈ Proto-Germanic *leugan
comes from *léugʰ developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian lagati
light (brightness)
Scots licht
comes from
*leuk [lɘʊk] developed into Balochi روچ roch “day”
Middle English liht
*leuk also developed into Sanskrit रोचते rochate
Anglo-Saxon leoht
*leuk also developed into Persian روشنی roshani “brightness”, which was borrowed into Urdu as روشنی roshni


*leuk also developed into Northern Kurdish roj rozh “Sun, day”


*leuk also developed into Tajik рӯз ruz “day”, Persian روز ruz, as in نوروز nowruz “New [Year's] Day” (see “new”)


*leuk also developed into Armenian լույս luys
light (weight)
Anglo-Saxon leoht
comes from *h₁lengʷʰ‑to- [e̥lʲɐŋgʷʰ—]
developed into Sanskrit लघु laghu
Proto-Germanic *linht‑
*h₁lengʷʰ also developed into Ancient Greek ἐλαχύς elakhüs
lip
= Anglo-Saxon lippe
Proto-Germanic *lep‑
comes from *leb
developed into Persian لب lab
listen (see “loud”)
Anglo-Saxon hlystan
comes from *ḱleu-s [klɐʊs] developed into Sanskrit श्रोष्यति shroshyati “will hear”
Proto-Germanic *hlus-
*ḱleu-s also developed into Bosnian slušati slushati


*ḱleu-s continued almost unchanged into Lithuanian klausyti
loan (see “lend”)
Old Norse lán
comes from *loikʷ, a form of *leikʷ “to leave”, which developed into Persian ریختن rikhtan “pour, spill, sprinkle”
lock
Anglo-Saxon lucan
= Proto-Germanic *lūkan
comes from *leug. A related form, *lug-no-s
developed into Sanskrit and Hindi रुग्ण rugna “bent”
long, Scots lang
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic lang
comes from *dlonǵʰ developed into Persian دراز deraz
loud (see “listen”)
Scots lood
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic hlūd
comes from *ḱleu-t [klɐʊt]
developed into Sanskrit श्रुत shruta “heard”
love
Northern English [ɫʊv]
comes from *lubʰ, a form of *leubʰ-
continued almost unchanged into Sanskrit लुभ्यति lubhyati
Anglo-Saxon lufu Proto-Germanic *luba
*leubʰ- developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian ljubav “love”
lust
Northern English [ɫʊst]
comes from *leh₂s- [lɐ:s]
developed into Hindi अनभिलषित anabhilashit “undesired”
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic lust
*leh₂s- [lɐ:s] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian laskati “flatter”


*leh₂s- [lɐ:s] also developed into Latin lascivus
maggot (see “moth”)
Middle English maddock
comes from *mot developed into Belarusian мотыль matil “butterfly”
Proto-Germanic *maþik
*mot also developed into Persian ملخ malakh “locust, grasshopper”
man comes from *mánu-s
developed into Bengali মানুষ manush
mane
Middle English mane
Proto-Germanic *manō
comes from *mon-eh₂- [monɐ̤ɦ] developed into Marathi मान maan “nape”
many
Anglo-Saxon maniġ
Proto-Germanic *managa
comes from *monogʰo
developed into Bosnian mnogo
march (frontier region)
Scots mairch
comes from *morǵ-eh₂ [morg̟ʲɐ:]
developed into Persian مرز marz “border”
Anglo-Saxon mearc
Proto-Germanic *marko

*morǵ-eh₂ [morg̟ʲɐ:] also developed into Latin margo
may (see “might”)
Anglo-Saxon mæġ
comes from *mogʰ developed into Sanskrit मघ magha “power”
Proto-Germanic *mag
*mogʰ also developed into Persian مغ mog “mage, magus”


*mogʰ also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian možda “maybe”
mead (honey wine)
Anglo-Saxon mæ̅d
comes from *medʰ-u
developed almost unchanged into
Lithuanian medus “honey”
Proto-Germanic *medu
*medʰ-u also developed into Sanskrit मधु madhu
meal (ground food) (see “mould”) comes from *melh₁-uo- [meləwɔ]. *melh₁ developed into Persian مالیدن malidan “rub”
Anglo-Saxon melu
Proto-Germanic *melwa

*melh₁ also developed into Sanskrit मृद् mrd “rub”


*melh₁ also developed into Urdu ملنا malna “rubbing”
mere (lake)
Anglo-Saxon mere
Proto-Germanic *mari
comes from *mor-i- [moɾi] developed into Bosnian more “sea”
merry (see “mirth”)
Anglo-Saxon merġ
Proto-Germanic *murgu
comes from *mrǵʰ-u developed into Sanskrit मुहु muhu “short”
mete out (see “empty”)
Anglo-Saxon ġemetan
Proto-Germanic *met‑
comes from *méd-e developed into Armenian միտք ‎ mitk’ “thought”
mice (see “mouse”)
Anglo-Saxon mȳs
Proto-Germanic *musi
comes from *muh₁s‑ [mu:s] developed into Persian موش mush
mid
= Anglo-Saxon midd
Proto-Germanic *medja
comes from *medʰ-io- [medʱjo]
developed into Sanskrit मध्य madhya, that developed into Hindi मध्य madhye
might (see “may”)
Scots micht
= Middle English miht
Anglo-Saxon meaht
Proto-Germanic *mahti
comes from
*mogʰ developed into
Sanskrit मघ magha “power”
milk
Anglo-Saxon meolc
comes from *h₂melǵ- [ħmelg], [ɐ̥melg]
developed into Sanskrit मर्जति marjati “clean, wipe”
Proto-Germanic *meluk
*h₂melǵ also developed into Ancient Greek ἀμέλγω amelgo
mind
Anglo-Saxon mynd
Proto-Germanic *mundi
comes from *mn-ti, a form of *men, which
developed into Bengali মানা mana “accept, obey”
mingle
Anglo-Saxon menge
comes from *monk, a form of *menk, which
developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian mek “soft”
Proto-Germanic *mang
*menk also developed into Persian آمیختن amekhtan “mix, mingle, blend, couple”


*menk also developed into Sanskrit मचते machate “be arrogant”
mirth (see “merry”)
Anglo-Saxon merġþ
Proto-Germanic *murgu
comes from *mrǵʰ-u
developed into Sanskrit मुहु muhu “short”
mist
= Anglo-Saxon mist
comes from *h₃migʰ- [ŏmigʱ]
developed into Persian مه meh
Proto-Germanic *mikst
*h₃migʰ also developed into Sanskrit मेघ megha


The suffixed form *h₃migʰ‑leh₂ developed into Modern Greek ομίχλη omikhli


*h₃migʰ‑leh₂ also developed into Siraiki mẽghla
month
Anglo-Saxon mōna+þ
comes from *méh₁-not [me:not]

moon
Anglo-Saxon mōna
comes from *méh₁-nos [me:nos]
developed into Persian, Balochi and Urdu ماه mah
Proto-Germanic *mēnan
*méh₁nos [me:nos] also developed into Latin mensis
morn (see “tomorrow”)
Anglo-Saxon morgen
Proto-West Germanic *murgan
comes from *mrk [mr̩k]
developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian and Slovenian mrak dark, dusk”
morrow (see “tomorrow”) is also from *mrk [mr̩k]

moss
comes from *meus‑a-. A related form *mus-o
developed into Ukrainian мох mokh
Anglo-Saxon meos ≈ PIE *meus
*mus-o also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian mahovina
moth (see “maggot”)
≈ Anglo-Saxon moþþ-
comes from *mot
developed into Belarusian мотыль matil “butterfly”
Proto-Germanic *muþþ
*mot also developed into Persian ملخ malakh “locust, grasshopper”
mother
Anglo-Saxon mōdor
Proto-Germanic *mōder
comes from *meh₂tḗr [maté:r], earlier [meħté:r] developed into Persian مادر modar
mo(u)ld (see “meal”)
Anglo-Saxon molde
comes from *ml̥h₂-téh₂ [ml̩:teħ], a form of *melh₂, which
developed into Ancient Greek μέλας melas “black” (cf. melanoma)
Proto-Germanic *muldo
The derived form *ml̥h₂-tó developed into Sanskrit and Hindi मृदा mrda “soil, clay”


*ml̥h₂-téh₂ [ml̩:teħ] developed into Ancient Greek μάλθα malta “a soft mixture of wax and pitch”
mourn
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic murnan
comes from *mer, *smer
developed into Sanskrit स्मरति smarati “remember”


*smer also developed into Persian شمردن shemordan “to count”
mouse (see “mice”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic mūs ≈ PIE *muh₁s
comes from *muh₁s‑ [mu:s]
developed into Persian موش mush
much, Scots mickle
Anglo-Saxon micel
comes from *meǵh₂- [megɐ]
developed into Northern Kurdish mazin
Proto-Germanic *mekil-
*meǵh₂- [megɐ] developed into Ancient Greek μέγας megas
murder
Anglo-Saxon morþor
Proto-Germanic *murþa
comes from *mŕ-to- [mr̩to], a form of *mer
developed into Persian مردن mordan to die”
nail
Anglo-Saxon næġel
comes from *h₃nog(ʷ)ʰ- [ŏ̥nogʷʱ]
developed into Persian ناخن nakhon, borrowed into Urdu ناخن nakhun
Proto-West Germanic *nagl
*h₃nog(ʷ)ʰ- [ŏ̥nogʷʱ] also developed into Ancient Greek ὄνυξ onuks, Modern Greek νύχι nishi
name
Anglo-Saxon nama
comes from *h₃nh̥₃men [ŏ̥nómen] developed into Persian نام naam, borrowed into Urdu نام naam
Proto-Germanic *namō
*h₃nh̥₃men [ŏ̥nómen] also developed into Modern Greek όνομα onoma
narrow
Anglo-Saxon nearu
Proto-Germanic *narwa
comes from *ner [neɾ̥] developed into Sanskrit नृत्य nrtya “dance”
navel
Anglo-Saxon nafel
comes from *h₃nobʰ-l-on- [onóbʰlon]. *h₃nobʰ developed into Sanskrit नभ्य nabhya
Proto-Germanic *nabla-⇩
*h₃nobʰ also developed into Persian ناف naf


*h₃nobʰ-l-on- [onóbʰlon] also developed into Modern Greek ομφαλός omfalos
nest (see “sit”)
= Anglo-Saxon nest
comes from *ni-sd-o [nizdo], a form of *sed, developed into Sanskrit नीड niida, that developed into Hindi नीड़ niir
Proto-Germanic *nista
*ni-sd-o [nizdo] also developed into Pashto ناست nast“seated, sitting”


*ni-sd-o [nizdo] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian and Serbian gnijezdo
new
Anglo-Saxon nīwe
comes from *neu-io
developed into Urdu نیا nea
Proto-Germanic *neuja- ≈ PIE *neu-io
*neu-io also developed into Persian نو no, and نوروز nowruz “new light” (New Year's Day). See “light”.
night, Scots nicht
Anglo-Saxon niht, neht
comes from *nokʷt developed into Sanskrit नक्तम् naktam
Proto-Germanic *naht
*nokʷt-s also developed into Lithuanian naktis 
nine
Anglo-Saxon nigon
comes from *h₁néun [e̥néun]
developed into Persian نُه noh
Proto-Germanic *neun
*h₁néun also developed into Ancient and Modern Greek εννέα ennéa


*h₁néun also developed into Armenian ինը ina
nit
Anglo-Saxon hnitu
comes from
*ḱh₃nid‑ [kɵníd]
developed into
Armenian անիծ anits
= Proto-Germanic *hnit-
*ḱh₃nid‑ [kɵníd] also developed into Modern Greek κόνιδα konitha
nose
Anglo-Saxon nosu
Proto-Germanic *naso
comes from *nh̥₂-s-eh₂‑ [nɐ̥sɐ̥:]
continued almost unchanged into Punjabi ਨਾਸ naas “nostril”
nostril (see “thirl”)
Anglo-Saxon nos-þy̅rl
is also from *nh̥₂-s‑ also developed into Hindi नाक naak


*nh̥₂-s‑ also developed into Romani nak
now
Scots noo
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic
comes from *nu
continued almost unchanged into Sanskrit नु nu
off (see “after”)
Scots aff
Anglo-Saxon of, aff
comes from *h₂ep-ó [apó], earlier [ħapó] developed into Sanskrit अप apa
Proto-Germanic *aba
*h₂ep-ó [apó] continued almost unchanged into Modern Greek απο apo
one (see “a”, “an”, “any”)
Middle English oon
comes from
*h₁oi-no-s [oinos] developed into Albanian një
Anglo-Saxon ān
Proto-Germanic *aina

The variant form *h₁ói-kos [hoikos] developed into Mittanian aika, borrowed into Hurrian 𒀀𒄿𒅗 aika


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos] also developed into Assamese এক ek


*h₁ói-kos [hoikos] also developed into Nepali एक ek


The variant form *h₁ói-wos [hoiwos] developed into Pashto یو yau


*h₁ói-wos [hoiwos] also developed into Ancient Greek οἶος hoios “only”
ore
Anglo-Saxon ār
comes from *h₂éi-es- [ħʌĭes] developed into Sanskrit अयस् ayas
Proto-Germanic *aiza
*h₂éi-es- [ħʌĭes]  also developed into Latin aes
other
Anglo-Saxon ōþer
comes from *h₂entero- [antero]
developed into Sanskrit अन्तर antara
Proto-Germanic *anþera‑
*h₂entero also developed into Lithuanian antra “second”


*h₂entero also developed into Latvian Otrdiena Tuesday” i.e. “second day


Via a variant form *h₂eltero, *h₂entero also developed into Latin alter
otter (see “water”, “wet”)
= Anglo-Saxon otor
comes from *ud-r-o (the stem of which, *ud, is derived from *wed)
developed into Sanskrit उद्र udra
Proto-Germanic *utra
*ud-r-o developed (almost identically) into Lithuanian udra
out, Scots oot
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic *ūt
comes from *ūd
developed into Classical Persian prefix ز-‎ zu
oven
Anglo-Saxon ofen
Proto-Germanic *ufna
comes from *h₂up-no, from *h₂ukʷ- [ħukʷ] developed into Sanskrit उखा ukha
over (see “up”)
Anglo-Saxon ofer
Proto-Germanic *uber
comes from *h₁uper- [hʉpeɾ]
Comparative of *h₁upo “up”, from earlier *supo.
developed into Sanskrit उपरि upari


*supo also developed into the comparative Latin super


*h₁uper also developed into Persian ابر abar


*h₁uper also developed into Balochi اور‎ awur
owe
Middle English owen
comes from *(h₂e-)h₂oik- [ɐħɑik̟ʲ]. The related form *h₂e-h₂iḱ- [ɐħik̟ʲ] developed into Sanskrit ईष्टे ishte “own”
own
Anglo-Saxon āgan
Proto-Germanic *aigan
is also from *(h₂e-)h₂oik- [ɐħɑik̟ʲ].

ox
Anglo-Saxon oxa
Proto-Germanic *uhsa
comes from *h₁uksen [ɦuksɘn]
developed into Sanskrit उक्षन् ukshan
path (see “find”)
Northern English
= Anglo-Saxon pæþ
comes from Proto-Germanic *paþa
a loan from Iranian *patha
The Iranian source of Proto-Germanic *paþa comes from *pont-eh₁-s [ponte:s] also developed into Vedic Sanskrit पन्थासो panthaso “path”, borrowed into Bengali পন্থা pontha
queen
Anglo-Saxon cwēn
comes from *gʷen
developed into Sanskrit ग्ना gnaa “goddess”
= Proto-Germanic *kwen-

*gʷen also developed into Pashto جنۍ‎ jinay “girl”


*gʷen also developed into Balochi جن jan “woman”


*gʷen also developed into Bosnian žena zhena “woman”


*gʷen also developed into Persian زن zan “woman”
quell (see “kill”)
Anglo-Saxon cwellan
Proto-Germanic *kwaljan
comes from *gʷelh₁- [gwele̥] developed into Lithuanian įgelti “to sting”. See “kill” for more cognates.
quern
Anglo-Saxon cweorn
comes from *gʷerh₂-nu- [gwerən—]
developed into Persian گران geran “expensive” (archaic: “heavy”)
≈ Proto-Germanic *kwern-

*gʷerh₂-nu- further developed into Balochi گران graan “heavy”


*gʷerh₂‑ also developed into Punjabi ਗੁਰ gur “guru”, as in ਗੁਰਦੁਆਰਾ gurdwara = gur+dwara “gateway to the gurus”; see “door”.


*gʷerh₂‑ also developed into Pashto ګور gurh “grave, tomb”


*gʷerh₂‑ (via variant form *gʷéh₂r-us) developed into Ancient Greek βάρος baros “weight”


*gʷerh₂‑ (via variant form *gʷréh₂-us) developed into Latin gravis “heavy”


*gʷréh₂ developed into Scottish Gaelic brà “quern”
quick
Anglo-Saxon cwicu
comes from *gʷi-gʷh₃-(u)ó
developed into Persian جیوه jiive “quicksilver, mercury”
≈ Proto-Germanic *kwikwa-
*gʷi-gʷh₃-(u)ó also developed into Lithuanian gyvo “alive”


Variant form *gʷiéh₃-uo‑ developed into Modern Greek ζώο zowo “animal”


Variant form *gʷih₃-uo developed into Ancient Greek βίος bios “life”


*gʷih₃-uo also developed into Latin vivo “I live”
quoth (see “bequeath”)
Anglo-Saxon cwæ̅de
Proto-Germanic *kweþ
comes from *gʷet. Probably related to *gʷed, which
developed into Sanskrit गदति gadati“to speak”
raw
Anglo-Saxon hrēaw
comes from *krouh₂- [kɾoʊħḁ]
developed into Ukrainian кров krov “blood”


Variant form *kruh₂- [kɾʊħḁ] developed into Persian خون khun “blood”


*kruh₂- [kɾʊħḁ] also developed into Northern Kurdish xwîn khwin “blood”


Variant form *kreuh₂- [kɾeʊħ] developed into Sanskrit क्रविस् kravis “raw flesh”


*kreuh₂- [kɾeʊħ] also developed into
Ancient Greek κρέας ‎kreas “flesh”
reach (see “reckon, right”)
Anglo-Saxon ræ̅ċan
Proto-Germanic *rakjan
comes from *h₃rēǵ [ŏ̥reg] “to straighten, direct” developed into Ancient Greek ὀρέγω orego “I reach out”
reck(-less)
Anglo-Saxon recce
Proto-Germanic *rōkjan
comes from *h₂roh₁(ǵ )-eh₂- [ɐ̥ɾo:gɐ] “care” developed into Doric Greek ἀρωγά aroga, Classical Greek ἀρωγή aroge “aid”, related to ἀρήγω arego “I help”
reckon (see “reach, right”)
Anglo-Saxon recce
Proto-Germanic *rōkja-⇩
may also come from *h₂roh₁(ǵ )-eh₂- [ɐ̥ro:gɐ]. Possibly from *h₃rēǵ [ŏ̥reg] “to straighten, direct”, according to Beekes, which
developed into Ancient Greek ὀρέγω orego “I reach out”
red
Anglo-Saxon rēad
comes from *h₁roudʰ- [hroʊdʱ]
developed into Sanskrit रुधिर rudhira
Proto-Germanic *raud
*h₁roudʰ- [hroʊdʱ] also developed into Ancient Greek ἐρυθρός eruthrós


Variant form *h₁reudʰ- [hrəʊdʱ] also developed into Latvian [h]ruds
reek
Anglo-Saxon rēocan
comes from *h₁reug- [ɘ̥rɛʊg] “belch”
developed into Persian اروغ arog “belch”
≈ Proto-Germanic *reukan
*h₁reug- [ɘ̥rɛʊg] also developed into Ancient Greek ἐρεύγομαι ereúgomai “belch, vomit”


*h₁reug- [ɘ̥rɛʊg] also developed into Lithuanian raugėti “belch”
rib
Anglo-Saxon ribb
comes from *h₁rebʰ- [hrebʱ] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian rebro
Proto-Germanic *rebja
*h₁rebʰ- [hrebʱ] also developed into Ancient Greek ἐρέφω erepho “roof”
right (see “reach, “reckon”)
Scots richt = Anglo-Saxon riht
comes from *h₃reǵ-to- [ŏregtʰo]. The related form *h₃rēǵ-h₃ón
developed into Sanskrit राजन् raajan, राजा raja “king, ruler”
Proto-Germanic *rehta
*h₃rēǵ “to direct” also developed into Persian راست rast “straight, right”
root
Middle English root
Proto-Germanic *wrōt
comes from *urd-i. The related form *ured
developed into Persian ریشه risheh
rush (reed)
Anglo-Saxon rysċ
Proto-Germanic *riskijā
comes from *resg [rezg]
developed into Sanskrit रज्जु rajju “rope”
salt
Anglo-Saxon sealt
comes from *sh₂-l-os [salos]
developed into Bosnian so
Proto-Germanic *salt‑
*seh₂l-s developed into Latvian sāls


*seh₂l-s also developed into Ancient Greek ἅλς hals
salve
Anglo-Saxon sealf
Proto-Germanic *salbo
comes from *solp. The related form *selp
developed into Ossetian царв tsarv “clarified butter”
same (US Female)
(see “some”)
comes from *somh₁-o- [somo]
developed into Persian هم ham “also”
same (UK Male)
Anglo-Saxon same
Proto-Germanic *sama
from *somh₁-o- [somo]

sang (see “sing”, “song”)
= Anglo-Saxon sang
Proto-Germanic *sangwa
comes from *songʷʰ‑o-, derived from *sengʷʰ‑e- “sing, intone” developed into Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai “to narrate”
sat (see “sit”)
Anglo-Saxon sæt
Proto-Germanic *sat-
comes from *sod, derived from *sed developed into Sanskrit सीदति sidati
say
Anglo-Saxon sæġe, secgan
comes from *sokʷ-eie. The related form *sekʷ
also developed into

Lithuanian sakyti
Proto-Germanic *sagjan
(Possibly an unrelated) *sekʷ developed into Sanskrit सच् sach-
“be associated with, seek”
sear, sere
Anglo-Saxon sēar
comes from *h₂sous- [ɑ̥sous], [ħsous]
developed into Persian خشک hoshk “dry”
Proto-Germanic *sauza
*h₂sous- [ɑ̥sous], [ħsous] also developed into Latvian sauss “dry”


*h₂sous- [ɑ̥sous], [ħsous] also developed into Lithuanian sausas “dry”
seat (see “sit”)
Middle English sete
Proto-Germanic *seti
comes from *se:d-i, a form of *sed developed into Sanskrit सीदति sidati
seed (see “sow”)
Middle English seed
comes from *seh₁-to- [se:to]. The stem *seh₁- [se:] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian sijati siyati “to sow”
Anglo-Saxon sæ̅d
The derived form *seh₁-mn [se:mn̩] developed into Latin semen “seed”


*seh₁-mn [se:mn̩] also developed into Ancient Greek ἧμᾰ hema
sell
Anglo-Saxon sellan
comes from *solh₁-éie. The related form *sl̥h₁ (perhaps) developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian slati “to send”
Proto-Germanic *saljan
The related form *selh₁ developed into Ancient Greek ἑλεῖν helein
set (see “nest”, “sit”)
Anglo-Saxon settan
Proto-Germanic *setjan
comes from *sed
developed into Sanskrit सीदति sidati
seven
Anglo-Saxon seofon
comes from *septm
developed into Latin septem
Proto-Germanic *sebun [sebm̩]
*septm also developed into Latvian septiņi


*septm also developed into Sanskrit सप्तन् saptan


*septm also developed into Pashto هفته hapta “week”


*septm also developed into Persian هفت haft
sew
Anglo-Saxon seowian
comes from *syuh₁- [sju:]
developed into Sanskrit सीव्यति sivyati
Proto-Germanic *siu
*syuh₁- [sju:] also developed into Urdu سینا siina


*syuh₁- [sju:] continues almost unchanged in Lithuanian siūti
shear (see “harrow”)
Anglo-Saxon sċieran
Proto-Germanic *skeran
comes from *s-ker. The derived form *ker-mn developed into Persian چرم charm “leather”
shoot
Anglo-Saxon sċēotan
comes from *s-keud. The derived form *skud-to-s
developed into Persian چست chost “quick”
Proto-Germanic *skeutan
The root *keud‑ developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian kidati “to tear/break”


*keud‑ also developed into Albanian hedh “throw”
shove
Anglo-Saxon sċufan
Proto-Germanic *skuban
comes from *s-keubʰ. The variant form *ks(e)ubʰ
developed into Persian آشوب aashub “chaos”
show
Anglo-Saxon sċeaw
comes from *s-keuh₁- [skou]. The derived form *kouh₁-is [ko:his]
developed into Marathi कवि kavi “poet”
Proto-Germanic *skawwan
*kouh₁ also developed into Ancient Greek κοέω koeo “be aware of”
sing (see “sang”, “song”)
Anglo-Saxon singan
≈ Proto-Germanic *singwan
comes from *sengʷʰ‑e-
developed into Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai “narrate”
sister
Anglo-Saxon sweostor
comes from *swesor
developed into Sanskrit स्वसृ svasr
≈ Proto-Germanic *swester
*swesor also developed into Persian خواهر‎ khohar
sit (see “set”)
Anglo-Saxon sittan
comes from *sed developed into Sanskrit सीदति sidati
Proto-Germanic *sitjan
*sed also developed into Lithuanian sėdėti


*sed also developed into Bosnian sjedi
six
Anglo-Saxon siex
comes from *sweḱs.
An earlier form *ḱsweḱs
developed into Iron Ossetian æхсæз akhshazh
Proto-Germanic *sehs
*ḱsweḱs also developed into Pashto شپږ shpag, southern dialect shpazh


*sweḱs also developed into Persian شش shesh, shish
small
Anglo-Saxon smale
Proto-Germanic *smala
comes from *smol
developed into Bosnian malo
smile
Old Norse *smíla
(Modern Norwegian smil)
Proto-Germanic *smir
comes from *smei
developed into Sanskrit स्मयते smayate
smirk
Anglo-Saxon smearc
Proto-Germanic *smar
is also from *smei also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian smejati
smoke
Anglo-Saxon smeocan
comes from *smeugh-e [smoʊg̟ʱe]
developed into Lithuanian smáugti “choke”
≈ Proto-Germanic *smeukan
*smeugh-e [smoʊg̟ʱe] developed into Armenian մուխ mukh
snow, Scots snaw
Anglo-Saxon snāw
comes from *snéigʷʰ-
developed into Sanskrit स्नेह sneha “moisture, oiliness”
Proto-Germanic *snaiwa


Punjabi ਸਿੱਨ੍ਹਨਾ or ਸਿੱਨ੍ਹਣਾ sinnhna,“to be wet” (no recording available)


*snéigʷʰ- also developed into Lithuanian sniegas
some (see “same”)
Anglo-Saxon sum
Proto-Germanic *suma
comes from *smh₁-o- [sm:o], a form of *somh₁-o- [somo], which developed into Persian هم ham “also”
son
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic sunu
comes from *suh₁-nus [su:nus]
developed into Sanskrit सूनु sunu
 
*suh₁-nus [su:nus] continued almost unchanged into Lithuanian sūnus
song (see “sang”, “sing”)
Proto-Germanic *sangwa
comes from *songʷʰ‑o-, derived from *sengʷʰ‑e- “sing, intone” developed into Prakrit 𑀲𑀁𑀖𑀇 sanghai “to narrate”
soot (see “sit”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic sōt
comes from *so:d-o, a derived form of *sed. *so:d-o- developed into Ukrainian сажа sazha
sore
Anglo-Saxon sār
Proto-Germanic *saira
comes from *sh₂ei-ro- [sairo], a form of *sh₂ei- [sai] “afflict, bind” developed into Ossetian хид khid “bridge”
sorry
Anglo-Saxon sāriġ
is also from *sh₂ei-ro- [sairo]. *sh₂ei- [sai] also developed into
Latvian saiklis “string, band, connection”
sorrow
Anglo-Saxon sorg
comes from *surgʰ-eh₂- [surgʱa]
developed into Sanskrit सूर्क्षति surkshati “worry”
Proto-Germanic *surgō
*surgʰ-eh₂- [surgʱa] also developed into Archaic Bulgarian срага sraga
sour
Anglo-Saxon sūr
comes from *súh₁-ro- [su:ro]
developed into Siraiki شور shor, Persian شور shur “salty”
Proto-Germanic *sūra
*súh₁-ro- [su:ro] also developed into Lithuanian sūris “cheese”


*súh₁-ro- [su:ro] also developed into Bosnian sir “cheese”
sow (see “swine”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic
comes from
*suh₁. The derived form *suh₁-kas developed into Balochi ہوک huuk “pig”


*suh₁ developed into Ancient Greek ὗς s


*suh₁ developed into Latin sus
to sow (see “seed”)
Anglo-Saxon sāwan
comes from *seh₁- [se:] developed into Slovenian sejati seyati
Proto-Germanic *sē- = PIE *seh₁‑
*seh₁ also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian sijati siyati
spare (extra, excess)
Proto-Germanic *spara
comes from *sph̥₁-ro- [spɘro]
developed into Sanskrit स्फिर sphira “fat, thick”
(= Old Norse and Icelandic spara)
The full form *speh₁-ro- [spɘ:ro] developed into Ancient Greek σπαρνός sparnós, Modern Greek σπανός spanós


*speh₁-ro- [spɘ:ro] also developed into Latin spes
spark (see “spring”)
Proto-Germanic *sparka
comes from *s-pérgʰ- [spɘrgʱ] developed into Pashto سپرغۍ sparghay
(= Old Norse and Icelandic sparka)
The related form *pérgʰ- [pɘrgʱ] developed into Sanskrit पर्जन्य Parjanya “(god of) rainfall”, Marathi Parzhanya
Icelandic Fjörgynn, a thunder god
is also from
*pérǵʰ- [pɘrgʱ] also developed into Lithuanian Perkūnas “(god of) thunder”
spell
Anglo-Saxon spell
= Proto-Germanic *spell(a)
comes from *spel-o
developed into Armenian առասպել arraspel
“myth, legend”
spew, Scots spew
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic spiwan
comes from *spti̯eu̯h₁- [sptju:]
developed into Persian تف tuf “spit”


*spti̯eu̯h₁- [sptju:] also developed into Ancient Greek πτύω ptuo “spit out”
spring (see “spark”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic springan
comes from *spré-n-gʰ-e, derived from *sprégʰ, a variant of *s-pérgʰ- [spɘrgʱ]. Another variant, *s-prgʰ developed into Sanskrit स्फूर्ज sphurja “be eager, strive after, desire”


*s-prgʰ also developed into Pashto sprəž sprazh “blossom”


*s-prgʰ also developed into Polish sprężyna “a (coil) spring”
staff (see “stand”)
Northern UK pronunciation = Anglo-Saxon stæf
comes from *sth₂-bʰo- [stɐbʰo] developed into Persian ستبر setabr “thick, stout”
Proto-Germanic *staba
*sth₂-bʰo- [stɐbʰo] also developed into Lithuanian stãbas “pole, idol”


*sth₂-bʰo- [stɐbʰo] also developed into Bulgarian стобор stobor “picket fence, paling”
stair
Anglo-Saxon stæ̅ġer
comes from *stéiǵʰ-e
developed into Sanskrit स्तिघ्नोति stighnoti “step up”
Proto-Germanic *steigr-
*stéiǵʰ-e also developed into Ukrainian стигнути stizhnuti


*stéiǵʰ-e also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian dostignuti “catch up”


*stéiǵʰ-e also developed into Albanian shteg “path”
stake (see “thatch”)
Anglo-Saxon staca
comes from *s-teg
developed into Sanskrit स्थगति sthagati “to cover”
Proto-Germanic *stako
*s-teg further developed into Punjabi ਠੱਗ thag “rogue, cheat”. Borrowed into English as thug.
stall (see “stand”)
Anglo-Saxon steall
Proto-Germanic *stalla
comes from *sth₂-dʰlo- [stɐdʱlo] developed into Hindi स्थल sthal “floor, platform, hill”
stand (see “staff”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic standan
comes from *sth₂-énti [stɐnti], derived from *steh₂‑ [steɐħ], which
developed into Persian ایستادن istaadan “stand up”


*sth₂-énti [stɐnti] also developed into Ukrainian стати stati “become”
star (see “ash”)
Anglo-Saxon steorra
comes from *h₂s-tér-on- [ɐstéron], derived from *h₂stér [ħɐ̥stér], which developed into Balochi اِستار istar
Proto-West Germanic *sterro
*h₂stér also developed into Northern Kurdish astirə


*h₂stér also developed into Persian ستاره sitare


*h₂stér also developed into Pashto ستوری storay


*h₂stér also developed into Ancient Greek ἀστήρ aster


*h₂stér also developed into Armenian աստղ astr
stead (see “stall”, “stand”) comes from *sth₂-ti-, derived from *stéh₂-ti-, which
developed into Sanskrit स्थिति sthiti “standing, residence, situation”
= Anglo-Saxon stede
Proto-Germanic *stadi

*stéh₂-ti- also developed into Ancient Greek στάσις stasis “standing, place, condition”
steer (see “stall”, “stand”)
Anglo-Saxon steor
Proto-Germanic *steur
comes from *stéh₂-ur [stɐ:r], earlier [steħʊr] (from *stéh₂) ~ *sth₂-ur “pole” developed into Persian ستون sutuun “column”
summer
Anglo-Saxon sumor
comes from *semh₁- [sɘmħɐ̥]
developed into Sanskrit समा samaa
Proto-Germanic *sumar-⇩
*semh₁- [sɘmħɐ̥] also developed into Armenian ամառ amar
sun
Anglo-Saxon sunne
comes from *séh₂un‑ [sɑʊɵn], a variant of *séh₂ul‑ [sɐʊɫ]. The derived form *sóh₂wl̩ [sɒʊɫ] developed into Sanskrit स्वर् svar
Proto-Germanic *sunnon
*sóh₂wl̩ further developed into Urdu سورج suraj


*sóh₂wl̩ also developed into Persian خور khor “sunrise, east”, as in the place-name خراسان Khorasan “Eastern Province”
swan
US English, Anglo-Saxon, and Proto-Germanic swan
comes from *swenh₂ [swenɐ] developed into Ossetian хонын khonin “to call”
swear (see “answer”)
Anglo-Saxon swerian
comes from *s-wór- [swor] developed into Sanskrit स्वर svara “voice, sound, vowel”
Proto-Germanic *swar‑

also developed into Ukrainian свари́ти swariti “argue, berate”
sweat
Anglo-Saxon swæ̅tan
comes from *swoid
developed into Sanskrit स्वेदते sveedate
Proto-Germanic *swait‑
*swoid also developed into Balochi ہید‎ hed


*swoid also developed into Iron Ossetian хид khid
sweet
Anglo-Saxon swēte
comes from *sweh₂d-u-s [swa:dus]
developed into Sanskrit स्वादु swaadu
Proto-Germanic *swōt‑
*sweh₂d-u-s [swa:dus] also developed into Balochi واد waad “salt”


*sweh₂d-u-s [swa:dus] also developed into Latin suavis, borrowed into English as suave
swine (see “sow”)
Anglo-Saxon swīn
comes from *suh₁-īno- [su:hi:no], derived from *suh₁. Another derived form, *suh₁-kas developed into Balochi ہوک‎ huuk “pig”
Proto-Germanic *swīną
*suh₁-kas also developed into Persian خوک‎ khuuch
tame (see “timber”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic tām
comes from *dem
developed into Persian دام dam “livestock”


*dem also developed into Sanskrit दाम्यति damyati “to tame”
to tear
= Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic ter-
comes from *derh₁
developed into Persian دریدن daridan “tear, ravage”


*derh₁ also developed into Balochi دِر‎ dir


*derh₁ also developed into Lithuanian dìrti
teeth (see “eat, tooth”)
Anglo-Saxon tēþ
from earlier *[tœ:θi], plural of tōþ 
comes from *h₁d‑ónt- eater” (Ringe) or *h₃d-ónt- (Kroonen) [ɵ̥dont] developed into Ancient Greek ὀδόντος odontos
More under “tooth”, below.
tell(count)
Anglo-Saxon tellan
Proto-Germanic *taljan
comes from *dolh₁ developed into Armenian տող togh “a line, row”
ten (see “hundred”)
Anglo-Saxon tīen
comes from *déḱm̩
developed into Proto-Indo-Aryan and Sanskrit दश dasha
Proto-Germanic *tehun
*déḱm̩‑ also developed into Iron Ossetian dash


*déḱm̩‑ also developed into Digor Ossetian дæс das and Urdu دس‎ das


*déḱm̩‑ also developed into Pashto لس‎ las


*déḱm̩‑ also developed into
Old Persian *daθa datha


*déḱm̩‑ also developed into Balochi دہ dah and Persian ده dah


 The suffixed form *déḱm̩-t‑ developed into Lithuanian dešimt


*déḱm̩-t‑ also developed into
Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian deset
that (see “there”)
Anglo-Saxon þæt
comes from *to-d
developed into Sanskrit तद् tad
Proto-Germanic *þat
*to-d also developed into Lithuanian tas


*to-d also developed into Latin istud
thatch (see “stake”)
Anglo-Saxon þæc
≈ Icelandic *þak
comes from *teg developed into Latin toga “toga, covering”
Proto-Germanic *þaka
The related form *s-teg developed into Sanskrit स्थगति sthagati “to cover”


*s-teg continued almost unchanged into Ancient Greek στέγος stegos “roof”


*s-teg also developed into Polish stóg “roof”


*s-teg also developed into Ukrainian стіг stigh “haystack”
thee (see “thou”)
Anglo-Saxon þē
Proto-Germanic *þek
comes from *te-ge, derived from *tu-ǵe, derived from *tuh₂ [tuɐħ]. The inflected form *tuh₂-om [tuaom] developed into Sanskrit त्वम् twam


*tuh₂ [tuɐħ] also developed into Pashto تا tah
there (see “that”)
Anglo-Saxon þæ̅r
comes from *to-r
developed into Marathi तर tar “so”
Proto-Germanic *þar
*to-r also developed into Sanskrit तर्हि tarhi “then”


*to-r also developed into Nepali तर tara “but”
thin
Anglo-Saxon þynne
comes from *tn̥h₂‑u- [tn̩:u]. Inflected form *tn̥h₂-u‑kos
developed into Persian تنک tunuk
Proto-Germanic *þunnu‑
*tn̥h₂-u‑kos also developed into Balochi تنک tanak


*tn̥h₂-u‑kos also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian tanak


*tn̥h₂-u‑kos also developed into Bulgarian тънък tuhnuhk
third
Anglo-Saxon þridda
comes from *tri-tih₁o- [triti:o], from earlier [triti:ho] developed into Sanskrit तृतीय trtiya
Proto-Germanic *þridja‑
*tri-tih₁o- [triti:o] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian treći
thirl (see “nostril, through”)
Scots thirl
Anglo-Saxon þy̅rl
comes from *terh₂-kʷe [terɐ̥kwe], from *terh₂‑. The derived form *trh₂- [trħa] developed into Sanskrit तिरस् tiras
nostril i.e. “nose-thirl”
Anglo-Saxon nos-þy̅rl
is also from *terh₂-kʷe [terɐ̥kwe].

thirst
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic þurst
comes from *tr̥s-tu. A different inflected form, *tr̥s-no,
developed into Persian تشنگی teshne “thirsty”


*tr̥s-no also developed into Balochi تُنَّگ tunnag “frog, thirsty one”
thistle
= Anglo-Saxon þisl
comes from *teig
continued almost unchanged into Balochi teg “sharp”
Proto-Germanic *þistil, from *þīh
*teig developed into Persian تیز tiiz, borrowed into Urdu تیز tiiz
thorn
Anglo-Saxon þorn
comes from *trno [tr̩nõ]
developed into Sanskrit तृण trnam

≈ Proto-Germanic *þurn-
*trno further developed into Bengali তৃণ trino


*trno also developed into Bosnian trn
thorough (see “thirl, through”)
comes from *terh₂-kʷe [terɐ̥kwe], from *terh₂‑. The derived form *trh₂- [trħa] developed into Sanskrit तिरस् tiras
Anglo-Saxon þurh Proto-Germanic *þerhwe
*trh₂- [trħḁ] also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian trajati“to continue”
thou (see “thee”)
Anglo-Saxon þū
comes from *tuh₂ [tuɐ], from earlier [tuɐ̥], [tuħ] developed into Persian تو tu, Tajik ту tu
Proto-Germanic *þū
*tuh₂ [tuɐ] further developed into Pashto تهء te


*tuh₂ [tuɐ] further developed into Balochi تئو tau


*tuh₂ [tuɐ] further developed into Digor Ossetian du, Iron Ossetian ды de
thousand (see “hundred”)
Allendale, Northumberland (1960's SED) thoosan
Anglo-Saxon þūsend
comes from *tuh₂s-dḱm̥-t [tuɐs͡d̥km̩t]
developed into Lithuanian tūkstantis
Proto-Germanic *þūs-(h)und-⇩
The related form *tuh₂s-ont- [tuɐsɵnt] developed into Croatian tisuća
three
Anglo-Saxon þrē
comes from *trei. The masculine nominative form *trei-es
developed into Sanskrit त्रयस् trayas
Proto-Germanic *þrī‑
*trei also developed into Sanskrit त्रि tri


*trei also developed into Romani trin


*trei also developed into Sindhi ٽي te


*trei also developed into Balochi سے se
through (see “thorough, thirl”)
Anglo-Saxon þurh
comes from *terh₂-kʷe [terɐ̥kwe], from *terh₂‑. The derived form *trh₂- [trħa] developed into Sanskrit तिरस् tiras
Proto-Germanic *þerhwe
*trh₂-nts, suffixed form of *trh₂ [trħa] developed into Latin trans
thunder
Anglo-Saxon þunor
comes from *tenh₂‑ [tenɐ̥]
developed into Pashto تندر tandar
Proto-Germanic *þunra‑
*tenh₂‑ [tenɐ̥] also developed into Persian تندر tondar “thunder, roar”


Prefixed form *s-tenh₂‑ [stenɐ] developed into Ancient and Modern Greek στενάζω stenazo “groan”
tide (see “time”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic tīd
comes from *dh₂i-tí- [dɐití], a form of *dh₂i- [dɐi] developed into Albanian ditë “day”
timber (see “tame”)
Anglo-Saxon timbrian
comes from *dem
developed into Sanskrit दम dama “house”
Proto-Germanic *timri
*dem also developed into Bosnian dom “home”
time (see “tide”)
Anglo-Saxon tīma
Proto-Germanic *tīmen
comes from *dh₂i-mon [dɐimon], a form of *dh₂i- [dɐi] developed into Kurdish dem
to
comes from *do
developed into Pashto ل la
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic to
*do
is the same as Bosnian do
tomorrow (see “morn”, “morrow”)
Anglo-Saxon morgen
Proto-Germanic *murgana
comes from *mrk [mr̩:k] developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, Serbian, and Slovenian mrak “dark, dusk”
tongue [tʌŋ] (US and Southern UK pronunciation) comes from *dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ]
developed into Sanskrit जिह्वा jihvaa
tongue [tɒŋ] (Midlands and Northern UK pronunciation) comes from *dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ] also developed into Romani chib
Anglo-Saxon tunge
= Proto-Germanic *tung-

*dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ] also developed into Pashto ژبه‎ zhaba


*dnǵweh₂ [dn̩gwɐħ] also developed into Latin lingua
tooth (see “eat, teeth”)
comes from *h₁d‑ónt- eater” (Ringe) or *h₃d-ónt- (Kroonen) [ɵ̥dont]
developed into
Ancient Greek ὀδόντος odontos
Anglo-Saxon tōþ
Proto-Germanic *tanþ

*h₁dónt‑ also developed into Lithuanian dantu


*h₁dónt‑ also developed into Sanskrit दन्त danta


*h₁dónt‑ also developed into Siraiki dand


*h₁dónt‑ also developed into Romani dan
tree
Anglo-Saxon trēow
comes from *drew [drəʊ], a variant of *doru, which
developed into Balochi دار daar “wood”
≈ Proto-Germanic *trew-
*doru also developed into Sanskrit दारु daaru


*doru also developed into Irish doire “oak wood, Derry”
true
Anglo-Saxon ġetrēowe
is also from *drew [drəʊ]

two
Scots twa
comes from *dwóh₁‑ [dwoh]
developed into Pashto دوه duwa (slow, careful pronunciation)
= Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic twā
*dwóh₁ also developed into Balochi دو doo, Urdu دو doo


*dwóh₁ also developed into Romani dui
under
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic under
comes from *ndʰér [n̩dʱér]
developed into Sanskrit अधर adhara


*ndʰér [n̩dʱér] also developed into Latin infernus
up (see “over”)
Anglo-Saxon upp(e)
= Proto-Germanic *upp
comes from *h₁upo [hupo], from earlier *supo. *h₁upo developed into Sanskrit उप upa, which further developed into Urdu اوپر uper
wain
Anglo-Saxon wæġn
comes from *woǵʰ
developed into Sanskrit वह्नि vahni “team of draft animals”
wag(g)on
Middle Dutch loan, from Proto-Germanic *wagna
is also from *woǵʰ also developed into Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin, and Serbian voz “train, wagon”
wake
Anglo-Saxon wacan
comes from *uh₂ǵ-e‑ [wagə]
developed into Sanskrit वाज vaaja “strength, vigour”
= Proto-Germanic *wakan
*uh₂ǵ-e also developed into Persian بزرگ buzurg “large, big, great”
warm
Anglo-Saxon wearm
comes from *gʷʰor-mo-
developed into Sanskrit घर्म gharma, which further developed into Urdu گرم garam
Proto-Germanic *warma
The root *gʷʰer‑ developed into Ancient Greek θερμός thermos
was (see “were”)
Anglo-Saxon wæs
comes from *h₂wés- [ħwes]
developed into Sanskrit सति vasati
Proto-Germanic *wes-⇩
*h₂wés- [ħwes] also developed into Proto-Hellenic awesa, which developed into Ancient Greek ἄεσα aesa “I slept”
wasp (see “web”); in some English dialects waps
= Anglo-Saxon waps, Proto-Germanic *waps(a)
comes from *h₁wobʰ‑seh₂, derived from *h₁webʰ, which developed into Balochi گْوَپت gwap “weave”
water (see “otter”, “wet”)
Scots watter
comes from *wodr , variant of *wodn, from the root *wed. The derived form *wed-ns
developed into Sanskrit उदन् udan

Proto-Germanic *watar
*wed-ns also developed into Latvian ūdens
wax (to grow; see “eke”) comes from *h₂wég-s- [ħwegs]
developed into Sanskrit वक्ष् vaksh-, in e.g. vakshayati
Anglo-Saxon weaxan
*h₂wég-s- [ħwegs] also developed into Persian وخش vakhsh
we
Anglo-Saxon
Proto-Germanic *wīz
comes from *wei
developed into Sanskrit वयम् vayam
wear
Anglo-Saxon werian
comes from *wos, derived from *wes, which
developed into Sanskrit वस्ते vaste
Proto-Germanic *waz‑
*wes also developed into Albanian vesh


*wes also developed into Latin vestis
weave (see “wasp”)
Anglo-Saxon wefan
Proto-Germanic *web‑
comes from *h₁webʰ
developed into Pashto اوبدل obdal
web
= Anglo-Saxon webb
is also from
*h₁webʰ also developed into Balochi گْوَپت gwap “weave”
Scots wab

*h₁webʰ also developed into Persian بافتن baaftan “weave”
= Proto-Germanic *wab-
*h₁webʰ also developed into Ancient Greek ὑφή huphe 
wed

comes from *h₁wedʰ- [ə̥wedʰ] developed into Sanskrit वधू vadhu “bride, daughter-in-law”
= Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic wed-
*h₁wedʰ- [ə̥wedʰ] further developed into Urdu بہو bahu “daughter-in-law”
weigh
Anglo-Saxon wæ̅ġ
comes from *wéǵʰ- [weg̟ʰ]
developed into Balochi and Persian پرواز parwaz “flight”
Proto-Germanic *weg- ≈ PIE *wéǵʰ
*wéǵʰ- [weg̟ʰ] also developed into Sanskrit वहति vahati “to convey”


*wéǵʰ- [weg̟ʰ] further developed into Urdu بہنا behna “to flow”
were (see “was”)
Anglo-Saxon wæ̅re
comes from *h₂wés- [ɐ̥wes] developed into Sanskrit सति vasati
Proto-Germanic *wēze [we:ʐə]
*h₂wés- [ɐ̥wes] also developed into Ancient Greek ἄεσα aesa “I slept”
werewolf (see “wolf”) comes from *wih₁ro- [ʋi:ɾo] developed into Sanskrit वीर vira
Anglo-Saxon wer
Proto-Germanic *wira

*wih₁ro- [ʋi:ɾo] further developed into Hindi वीर vir
west
= Anglo-Saxon west
Proto-Germanic *wester‑
comes from *wekʷsper-os. *wekʷsper developed into Bosnian večer vecher
wet (see “otter”, “water”)
= Anglo-Saxon wet, Proto-Germanic *wēt-
comes from *wed developed into Armenian գետ ‎gyet “river”
what
Anglo-Saxon hwæt
comes from *kʷod
developed into Sanskrit कद् kad
Proto-Germanic *hwat
*kʷod further developed into Punjabi ਕਦੋਂ kado “when”
wheat (see “white”)
Anglo-Saxon hwīt
Proto-Germanic *hwait‑
comes from *ḱwoid, derived from *ḱweid, a form of *ḱweit developed into Persian سفید sefid “white”
wheel (see “cycle”)
Anglo-Saxon hwēol
comes from *kʷel “move around” developed into Ukrainian колесо koleso “wheel”
Proto-Germanic *hweul‑

*kʷel also developed into Hindi चलते chalte “walk”


*kʷel also developed into Sanskrit चरति charati “walk”


*kʷel also developed into Persian چریدن charidan “graze”
where
Anglo-Saxon hwæ̅r
Proto-Germanic *hwar
comes from *kʷor
developed into Sanskrit कर्हि karhi


*kʷor also developed into Albanian kur “when”


*kʷor also developed into Lithuanian kur
whether
Middle English whether
Proto-West Germanic *hwaþar
comes from *kʷóteros [kwótero—] developed into Sanskrit कतर katara


*kʷóteros [kwótero—] also developed into Lithuanian (dialectal) kataras
while
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic hwīl
comes from *kʷih₁- [kʷi:], derived from *kʷieh₁- [kʷie:]. The extended form *kʷieh₁-to- [kʷie:to] developed into Persian شاد shad “happy”
white (see “wheat”)
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic hwīt
comes from *ḱweid, a form of *ḱweit developed into Persian سفید sefid
who
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic hwā
comes from *kʷó [kwo] developed into Kurdish


*kʷó [kwo] also developed into Ossetian чи chi
whole (see “hale”)
Anglo-Saxon hāl
Proto-Germanic *haila
comes from *koi-lo- developed into Bosnian cijelo “all”
wide (see “widow”)
Scots wide
Anglo-Saxon and Proto-Germanic wīd
comes from *h₁weidʰh₁- [hweidʱɘ̥] developed into
Latvian vidus
widow (see “wide”)
Anglo-Saxon widewe
comes from *h₁widʰh₁-uh₂- [hwidʱəwaħ] developed into Hindi विधवा vidhva
≈ Proto-Germanic *widuw-
*h₁widʰh₁-uh₂- [hwidʱəwaħ] also developed into Ukrainian удова udova
wield (power